Abdul-Rahim, Rania Marwan 2006
An Exploration of the Place and Function of Voice in the Drama Therapeutic Process
This study is intended to answer the question: what is the current versus the potential place and function of the voice in drama therapy in North America? With the intention of filling a voice in the literature, the research method I have chosen is qualitative, in the form of a historical/ documentary inquiry approach of reviewing, synthesizing, and analyzing information found mainly in the tow root fiends of drama therapy, psychotherapy and the theatre. Exploration of the transferability of this attention to voice to the field of drama therapy is addressed, in light of the current approaches of drama therapy. The main findings arrived at are that the voice has been awarded consideration and found to be an essential component of expression and healing in psychotherapy and the theatre. Moreover, it is found that the voice is not intentionally nor systematically used in drama therapy in North America, despite the fact that instances of its use have been discovered, as have previous calls, mainly from the United Kingdom, regarding the field's neglect of the voice. Specific functions of the voice are proposed, through the framework of the core processes of drama therapy. Finally, the discussion aims at better understanding why the calls to attending to the voice have not been answered, and what the field may do to rectify this.
Aberman, Liliane 1987
The Imaginal Experience Through Art as a Vehicle to Personal Meaning: A use of Jung's concept of amplification as seen through an art therapy student's exploration of personal transformation in her artwork
The subject of this thesis is an exploration of a personal transformation process through an examination of symbols arising in artwork. The symbols in the artwork are considered from the Jungian framework for individuation and from their relationship to the Feminine as a psychological principle. Symbolic meaning is amplified by a process of synthetic analysis, a Jungian method by which a personal symbol is compared to symbols from universal mythological and religious systems, so that the parameters of personal meaning are enlarged through analogy.
The artwork is analyzed both through its images and through its formal elements.
A correspondence in symbolic meaning is shown to exist between these two aspects of the artwork. Various considerations for therapy arise out of this exploration.
Adams, Elizabeth A. 2002
The Role of Playful Humor in Art Therapy
A pilot study was conducted to explore the role of playful humor as an adjunct to art therapy with children from families with dysfunctional relationships in crisis. The combination of play and art therapy is recognized as effective with children; however, the role of humor in this setting has not been reported. Six children (3 male, 3 female) from ages 9-15 years were studied for a 3 to 7 month period. Each child engaged in non-directive art therapy with humor introduced in the form of jokes and playful interchange throughout the therapy. Detailed records were kept of the humorous interplay including reflexive notations by the therapist/investigator. It was observed that humor facilitated a rapid formation of a therapeutic alliance, establishment of the play space and creation of a playful atmosphere. This playful atmosphere facilitated the expression of feelings and advanced the working through of problems. As therapy progressed, the children developed a greater receptiveness to humor, as they expressed their feelings and tackled their problems through playful art expressions. This enabled them to gain a degree of mastery over their problems. The therapy contributed to the children's development of a healthy humorous outlook toward the self and to life in general. While a larger sample population needs to be studied, this pilot study demonstrated a beneficial role for humor in conjunction with art therapy and play with children in family crisis.
Amundson, Tricia 2005
A Phenomenological study of Drama Therapy's Viability inside the High School.
For the field of drama therapy, research pertaining to its efficacy, although beginning to grow, is still desperately lacking. Indeed, there are many drama therapists working in the environment of the public high school and, although it has been documented that drama therapy is an effective therapeutic method for the adolescent population, there is very little research proving that it is effective within the high school, itself. Moreover, it seems that there is a desperate need for change within the high school system with atrocities such as the shooting at Columbine as glaring indicators. Thus, through a phenomenological investigation of a drama therapy program conducted within a public high school, this study sets out to secure drama therapy's presence within this context. The facilitator of the drama therapy program, the head teacher at the school and the five girls who participated in the program were all interviewed in an attempt to ascertain the experience itself. This study highlights, then, how one might develop and facilitate a drama therapy program within a public high school so that both the needs of the school as well as the therapeutic needs of the participants might be adequately met.
Alix, Isabelle 2001
L'archétype et ses manifestations dans un processus art-thérapeutique: une exploration théorique
Ce travail se situe surtout dans le cadre de la psychologie jungienne et fait une incursion dans le monde de l'archétype et de ses manifestations dans un processus artthérapeutique. Un retour aux origines du développement du concept de l'archétype est expliqué ainsi que les nombreuses définitions qui le qualifient: celle de Jung et des post jungiens. L'archétype se manifeste au conscient par le biais d'images et de symboles issues des rêves, de l'imagination active, des fantasmes, etc. Les dimensions affectives véhiculées par ces images archétypiques sont importantes et significatives dans un processus art-thérapeutique. Leur exploration par les biais des arts permet une rencontre tout à fait unique; une rencontre sans détour et très profonde entre le Moi conscient et le soi inconscient. Un travail art-thérapeutique de cette nature permet à l'individu de faire une auto-représentation de sa psyché et d'entrer en dialogue avec toutes les composantes de son être. La personne peut alors croître pleinement, contribuant ainsi à son individualité au sein de sa collectivité; c'est-à-dire qu'elle participe au bon déroulement de son processus d'individuation.
Altamura, Anna 1993
Voyage a travers le corps blessé: "CORPS ET IMAGE" Étude explorative d'ateliers de thérapie par l'art offerts à des femmes ayant des troubles de comportement alimentaire
Cette recherche tient à explorer l'apport positif de l'expression artistique dont peuvent bénéficier les personnes ayant les troubles de comportement alimentaire. La thérapie par l'art contribue à la compréhension du processus de dévalorisation et de blessures envers le corps propre et favorise l'acceptation et la satisfaction de soi.
C'est sur des dessins d'autoportraits produits par trois groupes de 8 à 10 femmes, souffrant de troubles de comportement alimentaire que s'appuie principalement cette étude. L'exploration d'autoportraits produits pendant des ateliers de groupe ont aidé à souligner les similitudes retrouvées dans les dessins du corps et conséquemment, dans le vécu des femmes partageant la même problématique.
La thérapie par l'art leur a permis de rendre visible et tangible les représentations internes ouvrant ainsi une nouvelle perspective à la découverte de soi. Les résultats de cette étude appuient les théories selon lesquelles cette perturbation remonte à la prime enfance et se développe dans une atmosphère familiale où règne la rigidité, la froideur, la colère, le mépris et le manque d'amour. La valorisation et l'estime de soi ne peuvent s'établir dans un pareil climat. C'est alors que le pouvoir de combler toutes les carences physiques et psychiques est attribué à la nourriture.
Annoual, Pascale C. 1995
Art therapy and the concept of blackness
This research explores issues of theory and practice relating to racism, race and blackness in the developing field of art therapy. Such issues are seldom the subject matter for research in the broader field of mental health yet they considerably impact the lives of stigmatized individuals dealing with racism and concepts of blackness. Realizing that racism is not only prejudice but is a practice that is systematically institutionalized, art therapy can only be enhanced by exploration of the undercurrents of discrimination and racism. The goal of this research is to investigate different interactions between selected black individuals and the practice of art therapy to explore how the artwork reveals the issues of racism, race and blackness.
Anthony, Elizabeth 1996
Artistries of Interior Time: The Subjective Experience of Time and Art Therapy, Focussing on Schizophrenia
Time, and in particular the subjective sense of time, is an invisible medium crucial to art therapy processes that has not received a focused inquiry in the literature. After a review in the introduction of those considerations which have been given to time in art therapy literature, the initial chapters of this thesis explore theoretical and developmental perspectives on the subjective experience of time as formulated in the schools of psychoanalysis, analytical psychology and existential psychotherapy. While each school ultimately deals with the client's experience of time as a whole, each is shown to preference one temporal perspective: psychoanalysis the past, analytical psychology the "other time" of archetypal reality, and existential psychotherapy the future cusp of the present. These findings are then integrated into an exploration of interior time in creative process, particularly with regard to the process and products of art therapy, in order to arrive at an understanding of how qualities and dynamics inherent in therapeutically supported art processes and their visual products make art therapy uniquely suited to establish healing connectivities within our clients' experience of time. J. T. Fraser's formulation of temporal umwelts, which he has identified the artist as particularly adept at traversing, is used as a unifying model for this study. Finally, a brief examination of several psychiatric diagnoses from the perspective of each as involving a disorganization of temporal experience culminates in the presentation of the case of a client with schizophrenia. In form and content, his art process and products are shown to eloquently embody the meanings of his experience of the psychoneurodynamic, temporal disordering inherent in schizophrenic process.
Armstrong, Calli 2007
Finding Catharsis in Fairy Tales:
A Theoretical Paper Exploring the Roles Catharsis Plays
When Fairy Tales are used in Drama Therapy for Children with Anxiety
This paper explores where catharsis may be found within work with fairy tales, why therapeutic work with fairy tales may be appropriate for children with anxiety, and what roles catharsis may play when fairy tales are used with this population. This paper explores possible connections between fairy tales and catharsis, and considers how these connections may or may not be beneficial in drama therapy for children with anxiety.
While some research has suggested that catharsis may be harmful, such research has defined catharsis as just the expression of emotion. For this paper, Catharsis is defined as the process of emotional discharge that brings about relief of emotional tension. Catharsis can be an internal process that does not necessarily result in visible expressions of emotion. While catharsis is not necessary for therapeutic change, according to the definition used in this paper, catharsis is necessarily therapeutic.
In combination with action oriented drama therapy methods, fairy tales provide the necessary stimuli for catharsis to occur within children with anxiety. The themes, structure, and fictional world of fairy tales help to establish an aesthetic distance between the client and the material being explored, which allows catharsis to occur. Catharsis channels emotion, relieves anxiety, and brings children a new understanding of their anxiety.
Armstrong, Jocelyne 2002
Exploring the effects of dramatherapy with a child diagnosed with learning disabilities
This case study report outlines the development in dramatherapy of one boy diagnosed with a learning disability. The child was referred by his special education classroom teacher due to frequent temper outbursts, his difficulty socializing with peers and low self confidence. He participated in weekly individual drama therapy sessions for a total of fifteen weeks.
This paper will explore one child's creation of his own story of self alternate to the stories of failure, frustration and tears commonly told about him and will highlight his integration of new abilities including daily coping and certain expressive skills as well as feelings of confidence as a creative story maker. The therapist chose to work through a creative expressive frame that focused on the child's strengths and creativity. The paper will illustrate how in a safe and success oriented therapeutic environment a foundation of trust and mutual respect was built between therapist and child The reader will follow the child's storymaking journey through themes of chaos and unpredictability to his gradual discovery of self confidence and self expression.
AuCoin, Diane 1998
The Transformation out of Trauma through the Creative Arts Therapies
In today's world the evening news all too frequently features children who are killing other children, often in their schools and often after giving warning to at least some of their peers. We are prompted to ask, where we, as a society are going wrong in the raising up of our children? What individual or collective angst are these children expressing? Can we inoculate ourselves against this growing trend? How? When? Violence of one kind or another is woven into the thread and fiber of our daily lives. Everyone it seems knows someone who has witnessed or experienced abuse of some kind. The idea that a hostile environment affects and changes children who live within it is well accepted.
What other factors put children "at risk" for non optimal development? Which are the most insidious? What is optimal development anyway, and is my idea a close approximation of yours? Where should interventions take place in order to promote healthy development, and when? What factors allow some people to develop resilience and flexibility when faced with stress and adversity? What qualities of creative art therapy lend themselves to at least a fractious solution to some of these issues?
This researcher set out to look for answers to these questions through literature review, personal interviews and reflection on personal experience with clients, in a rural Nova Scotia community (population 2200).
AuCoin, Diane Robb 2001
The Construction of an Art therapy Program Designed for Children at Risk in Nova Scotia
* No abstract
Auger, Denise 2000
La création comme processus thérapeutique
Le présent mémoire s=intéresse à "l'accomplissement de soi" dans l'espace de la "création" en thérapie par les arts.
L'art préhistorique s'inscrit en toile de fond dans ce texte pour illustrer les liens unissant les capacités créatrices de l'homme à son évolution dans l'histoire. Les oeuvres d'art sont des témoignages des processus mentaux, éthiques et esthétiques qui ont modelé notre devenir jusqu'au stade actuel. L'étude des théories élaborées sur l'imagerie artistique et la découverte de la psychanalyse éclairent le rôle de la création artistique dans l'économie et la finalité de l'appareil psychique. L'oeuvre d'art étudiée sous cet angle nous permet de comprendre comment et pourquoi la démarche artistique peut avoir une valeur thérapeutique. En vue d'explorer l'espace thérapeutique de l'art, ce texte s'appuie sur les recherches et les concepts théoriques qui ont contribué au développement de la thérapie par l'art. L'accent est mis sur l'étude des processus de symbolisation et de synthèse à l'oeuvre dans l'activité créatrice. La contribution de la thérapie par l'art au traitement des patients psychotiques est illustrée dans la pratique clinique.
Aylward, Alison 2005
Recovering the Lost Voice: Exploring the Use of Role in Dramatherapy with Depressed Women
The following paper describes and summarizes my qualitative research in the form of group case study based upon the therapeutic process of four female participants. The primary question explored is: does the use of role in dramatherapy have efficacy for adult women suffering from depression? I have herein chosen to examine a feminist theoretical model which addresses women's inherently relational nature as it links with their susceptibility to this serious illness. Chapters One and Two comprise a review of the relevant literature with a heightened emphasis upon role theory. Chapters Three, Four and Five introduce my four participants and provide summaries of their therapeutic progressions through role, as well as a description of and rationale for employing Renee Emunah's Integrative Five Phase Model. Chapter Six presents an overview of both individual and group experiences of specific, role-related dramatherapy tools. Finally, Chapter Seven consists of a critical appraisal of the process and resultant findings.
Backhouse, Chriszine 2007
Mountain Stories: A Phenomenological Inquiry into a Playback Theatre Event
On May 24th, 2007, a disparate group of people gathered on the mountain, otherwise known as Mount Royal Park, to share their “mountain stories” through the form of Playback theatre. The present study is a phenomenological inquiry into the sense of connection participants experienced towards the mountain in response to this Playback event. Following the event, titled Mountain Stories, five people were interviewed, ranging in age, gender, and first language, to arrive at essential themes and structures reflecting the meaning of the event in relation to their sense of connection to the mountain. The interviews were analyzed in accordance with the tenets of phenomenological methodology, as described by Clark Moustakas (1994). The findings indicate that the co-researchers felt that their sense of connection to the mountain was related to their sense of connection to the other people in attendance at the event. The community gathered at the event co-created the meaning of the mountain, which was enriched by the physical location, by the journey to and from the event, and by the talented actors and musicians who interpreted the stories. The implications for this study are that connection to natural spaces includes connection to other people, and that this dynamic can be meaningfully enhanced through Playback theatre.
Backman, Deborah J. 1991
Art therapy and the treatment of perversion: Theoretical and Clinical aspects of perversion and sublimation
The subject of this thesis is sublimation and perversion, their theoretical constructs, and their application to art therapy.
Art is often discussed in the literature (as per the theory of neurosis) as a means to sublimate drives, primarily neurotic drives. Perversion is rarely covered or included in these discussions, and is particularly rare in the art therapy literature. This thesis is an attempt to examine the art therapy process that is fundamentally a process of, and strives toward, sublimation of the drives. Perversion, a pathological attempt to deal with anxiety and the drives, will also be discussed as a possible deviation of the drives.
I shall also include an explorational summary of a client's process seen in art therapy. Through it, I hope to illustrate how sexual psychopathology-- expressed as perversion-- can be seen as symbolized in art work in art therapy.
Following the theory emanating from the work of Chasseguet-Smirgel, I shall discuss the parallels between the concepts of "art and sublimation" and "art and perversion". From this controversial perspective, perversion of the drives can be understood as being able to be symbolized or expressed directly (not sublimated) in their raw form, rather than as sublimation of perversion in art work.
This thesis will strive to serve as a foundation for art therapists and other professionals requiring theoretical and practical understanding in this area, enabling them to continue examining perversion and its place in working with sexual psychopathology.
Bangham, Nicola 1999
Dramatherapy as a Complementary Approach in the Healing Process of Cancer: Dramatherapy research and practice framed in the “mind/body paradigm”
This paper proposes a dramatherapy model for working with individuals diagnosed with cancer. The research is twofold. The first section is dedicated to exploration of the psychosocial impact of cancer. I have identified both the psychological and physical afflictions associated with having cancer. The research leads into the role of the mind/body paradigm in the healing process of the disease. The mind/body paradigm, clearly defined as a philosophy that considers the role of psychological stress on the onset and perpetuation of disease, is the framework that the research is based upon. Both `healing' and `cure' are defined in order to dispel cynicism with regards to intention of the dramatherapist. I explore both complementary and alternative approaches to cancer treatment that fit into the mindibody paradigm. The approaches are considered in relation to dramatherapy. The second part of the research is a proposed dramatherapy approach, influenced by the ideology of the explored complementary and alternative approaches to healing. The intention of this paper is to consider the healing potential of dramatherapy with this population.
Bangham, Nicola 2000
An Experiment in Integration: Working with "Youth At-Risk" in Performative Style Drama Therapy
This paper presents the experience of two adolescents, traditionally labeled as "youth at-risk", involved in the collaboration of a public performance rising out of Performative Style Drama Therapy Process. This unique project combines the creativity and dedication of several groups of people including adults living with mental handicaps (the primary participants), University students, Creative Arts Therapists and the two so-called youth at-risk or whom we call "Creative Arts Apprentices". The focus is on the journey of the apprentices. The process is explored at several levels. The paper begins with a brief historical and factual overview of the phenomenon of Performative Style Drama Therapy and how it is approached at The Centre for the Arts in Human Development. In the second part of the study I have attempted to bring the phenomenon of "youth at-risk" to task by presenting the apprentices only through the descriptions of themselves. The project itself is presented in detail with transcripts of interviews and journal excerpts offered by the apprentices and other participants in the process. Themes and meanings that emerged through out the creation period and production are presented and considered in greater detail. The purpose of this research, for the most part, is to present a "successful" portrayal of integration through the Performative Style Drama Therapy process.
Barca, Radu Christian 2004
Alchemical Interpretation of Imagery as a model of Heuristic Self-exploration
This paper sprang forth from the deeply felt need to effectuate a change in my perception and experience of art and, at the same time, in my psyche. In it I explore the meaning and the effect of a creative process through the perspective of alchemy and its links to the process of individuation. Both of which have been explicated and explored at length by Carl Gustav Jung. A series of 35 images, produced by myself, are examined in the light of alchemy and within the framework of archetypal theory, in an attempt to ground personal experience in the archetypal psyche and thereby create a personal mythology, one that can enrich the experience of anyone who can relate to the quest of becoming oneself. Through the use of the heuristic method I found a link between my artistic and my psychological identities, both essential constituents of my professional identity as an art therapist. By contemplating the richness, but also the strangeness of the material brought to consciousness by these images, I succeeded in having a first hand experience of a transformation by means of creative visual expression and a new beginning of a more authentic relationship with creativity and life.
Bargiel, Marianne 2004
L'expression émotionnelle dans l'improvisation musicale : Élaboration d'une grille d'observation en musicothérapie
La perspective fonctionnaliste attribue à la régulation émotionnelle un rôle central dans la survie biologique au niveau de la communication et de la socialisation (Fox, 1998). L'expression d'émotions fondamentales est une stratégie de régulation intra et interpersonnelle qui se développe dès la petite enfance. Par ailleurs, la dysrégulation émotionnelle est associée à la psychopathologie (Cole, Michel, & O'Donnell Teti, 1994). La musicothérapie conçoit la musique comme un mode universel de communication basé sur un code acoustique analogue à celui de la transmission de contenus émotionnels dans le langage verbal. Le code musical table sur le système motivationnel (appétitif ou aversif) pour susciter la perception et l'expression d'émotions adaptées au contexte environnemental. Le musicothérapeute utilise ce code en improvisation clinique pour évoquer l'affect musical afin de développer les capacités autorégulatrices nécessaires au fonctionnement social et cognitif. En effet, des études suggèrent que les non musiciens, comme les musiciens professionnels, perçoivent (et par extension, expriment) les émotions fondamentales par la musique (Peretz, Blood, Penhune, & Zatorre, 2001; Sloboda, & Juslin, 2001; Trehub, 2001). Basée sur ces études, une grille d'observation est proposée à titre exploratoire pour quantifier l'improvisation musicale en contexte thérapeutique. Les items, posés à partir de données expérimentales en psychologie cognitive musicale et d'observations cliniques en musicothérapie, regroupent des éléments musicaux associés à la communication de la joie et de la tristesse (Peretz, Gagnon, & Bouchard, 1998). Cet instrument de mesure permettra de comparer l'affect musical entre musiciens et non musiciens, entre des groupes cliniques en psychopathologie ainsi qu'avant et après une intervention musicothérapeutique au niveau de l'autorégulation.
The functionalist perspective assigns to emotional regulation a central role in biological survival regarding communication and socialisation (Fox, 1998). Expression of basic emotions is an intra and interpersonal regulation strategy which develops as early as infancy. Furthermore, emotional dysregulation is associated to psychopathology (Cole, Michel, & O'Donnell Teti, 1994). Music therapy conceives music as a universal mode of communication based on an acoustic code that is similar to the one which transmits emotional contents in verbal language. The musical code taps into the motivational system (appetitive or aversive) to prompt perception and expression of emotions that are adapted to the environmental context. The music therapist uses this code in clinical improvisation to stimulate the musical affect in order to develop the selfregulating capacities required for social and cognitive functioning. In effect, some studies suggest that nonmusicians, just as professional musicians, perceive (and, by extension, express) basic emotions through music (Peretz, Blood, Penhune, & Zatorre, 2001; Sloboda, & Juslin, 2001; Trehub, 2001). Based on these studies, a musical improvisation quantification observation tool is proposed for exploration purposes within a therapeutic context. The items, set down according to experimental data in cognitive music psychology and to clinical music therapy observations, gather musical elements which are known to contribute to the communication of joy and sadness (Peretz, Gagnon, & Bouchard, 1998). This instrument of measurement will allow for the comparison of musical affect between musicians and nonmusicians, between psychopathological clinical groups and, also, before and after a music therapy intervention regarding selfregulation.
Barnard, Dimitra 2003
Co-Created Ritual: Exploring the Potential of Ritual Drama as a Therapeutic Tool
A process of heuristic inquiry, this paper documents the author's adaptation of a Neopagan approach to ritual for appropriate secular use with clients in a therapeutic setting. Two groups are discussed. The first group was comprised of the author and two fellow creative arts therapy students who were also practicing Neopagans. The second was a client group of three women that the author designed and facilitated for a bilingual community mental health centre. The same retrospective open-ended questionnaire was used after both groups to elicit members' responses to the ritual experiences they shared. Complete results from each group are included as appendices.
Related areas of literature reviewed by the author include the following: ritual in theatre, ritual in drama therapy practice, ritual and the Sacred in therapy, as well as a contextual overview of common Neopagan beliefs and ritual practices. The peer group that served as inspiration to the author is described and the adaptation process is discussed, including various challenges as well as an examination of the role of the therapist. The structure and unfolding of the client group are documented in detail, as well as the life-death-rebirth theme that shaped its culmination. Photographs of group sculptures related to this theme are included. Questionnaire results are discussed separately for each group and a synthesis of common themes is included in the final chapter.
Benoît, Anne 1998
Alchimie, processus d'individuation et art thérapie
* No abstract
Benoît, Anne 1999
Approche des matériaux d'art en art thérapie
Ce travail de recherche vise à mettre en évidence le rôle ainsi que certaines des multiples fonctions que remplissent les matériaux d'art dans le contexte art-thérapeutique. D'abord, le chapitre 1 explorera les qualités inhérentes aux matériaux suivants: argile, peinture, crayon et collage, en mettant 1'accent sur les effets thérapeutiques qu'entraîne leur utilisation. Ensuite, le chapitre 2 abordera la question du rapport du client aux matériaux: son choix, ses résistances ainsi que l'instauration d'un dialogue investi avec ceux ci. Le chapitre 3 s'intéressera aux conséquences de la transformation proprement dite du matériau en une production artistique, à savoir comment cette "mise en forme" objectivise les représentations internes du client tout en dynamisant et en structurant son rapport au monde et la thérapie. Enfin, le chapitre 4 soulèvera la question des interventions de l'art thérapeute dans le cadre précis de ce rapport global du client aux matériaux d'art.
Berbrier, Jennifer 2002
Mental imagery and dreams: Art therapy with visually impaired adolescents
Vision is considered to be the dominant sense modality in our society. Many of the colloquialisms we use tend to rely upon imagery that privileges sight. This exploratory study investigates visual imagery in relationship to the visually impaired. It questions whether creative expression can facilitate an articulation of mental imagery and dreams with this population. It reviews research in the areas of psychology, art education, art therapy, mental imagery, dreams and perception that has contributed insights into the art abilities of the visually impaired. Some of the primary findings in this literature demonstrate that those without sight have an understanding of perspective, occlusion, depth of field and motion. Additionally, research in the area of mental imagery shows that the visually impaired understand spatial knowledge in similar ways to sighted individuals. The dreams of the early and late blind demonstrate that both groups are able to perceive concrete spatial layouts while dreaming. Furthermore, absence of vision is shown to have no effect on the richness and narrative continuity of dreams. Art therapy is found to offer the visually impaired a space where they can communicate their dreams as well as their unique experiences through concrete visual forms. In turn, it serves as a vehicle through which the visually impaired enter into communication with the sighted world. Overall, this study offers insights into other methods of looking at and perceiving the world.
Bilagot, Angel 2007
The Utilization of Performative Inquiry as a Learning Tool within Drama Therapy
This Study was instigated by a research class presentation – a performance displaying and explicating my therapeutic process with one particular client. My research evolved beyond the concept of performance as explanation to performance as a site of learning. In this arts-based research, I intentionally utilize all aspects of a performance to engage in the potential for increased learning in order to heighten my understanding of one specific therapeutic process.
The process of learning in this study strictly follows the methodology of Performative Inquiry. This is defined as a “(re)search methodology that recognizes explores honors the absences, journey-landscapes, and space-moments of learning realized through performance” (Fels, 1999, p.30). Through the action and interaction of all aspects of a performance, the unknown is played into recognition and learning can occur.
This report details my subjective process of applying Performative Inquiry as a learning tool to the modality of Drama Therapy. Additionally, it intends to clearly define Performative Inquiry and it's relevance to Drama Therapy. My aim for this research is to highlight the validity and generalizability of Performative Inquiry, specifically, in relation to Drama Therapy.
Blom, Marleah 1999
The Potential Use of a Drama Therapist in the Workplace:
The Feasibility of Integrating Industry with the Creative Arts Therapies
This paper explores the potential benefits and feasibility of using drama therapy within work settings. Problems employees face at work are described as well as how these problems may impact organizations. An examination of what types of mental health programs, including disciplines related to drama therapy, that have previously been used within industries are outlined, as well as how creativity has been incorporated into such settings. The benefits, considerations, and possible adaptations of drama therapy will be discussed to determine if and why drama therapy would be an option for businesses looking to enhance the wellness of their employees.
Blom, Marleah 2004
The use of mirrors in therapy:The potential use of a mirror as a projective assessment tool in drama therapy
Literature on the use of mirrors within drama therapy and what information might be gained when a therapist observes his client interact with his mirror image is limited. An overview of how mirrors are used within psychological research, psychotherapy and drama therapy will be presented. A comparison will be made between the use of mirrors and the use of photographs and video as self-image viewing tools within the creative arts therapies. Projective techniques and projective assessments that are commonly used within drama therapy will be outlined before describing and evaluating a potential new projective assessment that uses a mirror in individual drama therapy with children. Further directions for research and clinical work in regards to the mirror as a projective tool are also discussed in order to introduce professionals in drama therapy and other related fields to new, creative, ways and techniques to help better understand their clients and their needs.
Boettger, Kristin 2002
Towards the integration of nature into art therapy: A heuristic exploration of an ecological context for creative expression
Historically, there has been a disturbing absence of nature in the field of psychotherapy. Up until now, much of the helping professions have adopted a primarily self-centered approach to healing, with little emphasis placed upon our relationship to the Earth. This absence of an ecological sensibility is also present in the field of the creative arts therapies, as the connection between art and nature has rarely been made explicit or applied in clinical practice. However, there is evidence to suggest that the field of psychotherapy, and specifically art therapy, is beginning to adopt such an awareness, and being enriched in the process. This paper is an examination of how art therapy might benefit from adopting an ecological context for clinical practice and research. A heuristic research design is used to examine the researcher's experience of nature through reviewing pertinent literature, presenting personal creative responses, and speculating on possible therapeutic implications of findings. Findings include an increased awareness of nature as embodying multiple contradictions—enabling the researcher to better tolerate personally felt inner contradictions. These realizations are discussed as fostering an increased sense of authenticity in both personal creative pursuits and clinical practice. Suggestions for applications of an ecological context in the practice of art therapy are offered in the context of Winnicott's theory of object relations and the intermediate realm, and questions raised with regards to future directions for research and practice.
Boivin, Marie Nicole 1995
L'art thérapie gériatrique: le rôle des médias (dessin, peinture, sculpture, collage)
Cette recherche vise à explorer les aspects thérapeutiques des médias de l'art thérapie, avec une population clinique spécifique: la population gériatrique d'un centre d'hébergement de longue durée et de soins prolongés. Les médias considérés sont ceux ci: dessin, peinture, collage, sculpture et les matériaux et techniques utilisés dans les sessions.
Les médias sont considérés ici comme le deuxième élément important dans l'art thérapie gériatrique, après le premier qui est la qualité de la relation thérapeutique.
La méthodologie à la base de cette recherche est: l'exploration à travers la littérature d'art thérapie, l'observation participante et l'interpretation de l'utilisation des médias par les patients gériatriques, dont un cas choisi lors d'un premier internat. L'interprétation des rôles des médias se fonde sur une approche éclectique, incluant des cadres de référence psychanalytiques, humanistes, existentiels et cognitifs.
Cette recherche s'est limitée a une exploration des rôles des médias de l'art thérapie avec une population spécifique, et fut realisée dans l'enthousiasme des premiers stages de l'auteure dans ce milieu gériatrique.
Boodajee, Sonya 2005
Orthopaedic Paediatric Patients Using Art Therapy: Their Distinctive Qualitative Features in Art Creations During Hospitalization
Not until Medical Art Therapy was implemented in the 1990's was art work created by hospitalized paediatric patients with diagnoses other than cancer reported. Cathy Malchiodi refined art making for therapeutic application with patients undergoing long-term hospitalization and found indication of medical sequelae in their art works. Many art therapists have documented the drawings of cancer patients. Research has shown how art therapy with medically ill children has been effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms, which enables a sense of control (Councill, 1993). This paper examines the artwork of ortopaedic paediatric patients. Malchiodi's Medical Art Therapy (1998) which uses art as the creator's voice, and a Studio Arts based program that allows the patient to make their own decisions, self-direct, adapt and create self-reflective actions were described in light of the current project. The integration of Developmental Transformations is a technique used in creative arts therapies to help therapist interpret meaningful kinesthetic responses in the patient's natural developmental sequence (Johnson, 1999). Five orthopaedic paediatric patients were chosen to demonstrate their unique processing using Creative Arts Therapies. The connection between mind and body was illustrated, providing a scaffold through which the injured body could be encouraged to move in new ways.
Bourassa, Francine Yvonne 1987
The “Borderline Syndrome” In Childhood Using Art Therapy as a Treatment Modality
A literature review on the borderline childhood phenomenon and its treatment indicates that different authors share more in common than they have differences. They are grouped under the "Developmental Approach" within Margaret Mahler's conceptual framework as it pertains to the "Separation Individuation" theory. Moreover, specific manifestations of the borderline syndrome in childhood are analyzed. For illustrative purposes, the case of Lili, a 10 year old girl seen in art therapy within a multidisciplinary treatment team, will be examined. The thesis describes the child's clinical profile and visual imagery with its specific characteristics and how the art therapy context is integrated into Mahler's theoretical formulation. The therapist is viewed as a developmental "partner" in the therapeutic alliance, which is facilitated and strengthened by the use of metaphors. Finally, art therapy acts as a complement to concurrent forms of treatment modalities for children who suffer from a similar disorder.
Boyard, Florise 2006
Investigation sur le kotéba thérapeutique malien: comparaison entre les phases du processus dramatique thérapeutique du kotéba thérapeutique et de la dramathérapie
Ce projet a été motivé par le besoin en dramathérapie d'investiguer d'autres approches utilisant le théâtre dans le processus thérapeutique afin d'accroître la littérature actuelle et d'engager une réflexion quant à sa place en contexte d'interventions interculturelles en santé mentale. Ce travail de recherche théorique compare la dramathérapie au kotéba thérapeutique malien. Il s'attarde spécifiquement aux phases du processus dramatique thérapeutique des deux interventions. Par ailleurs, la premiére partie de cette recherche constitue une investigation phénoménologique sur la structure du processus dramatique thérapeutique du kotéba thérapeutique, non documentée auparavant. Après avoir dégagé les phases de ce processus, celles-ci ont été comparées avec les phases présentées par le dramathérapeute Phil Jones, dans son livre Drama as therapy: theater as healing [traduction libre: L'art dramatique comme thérapie: un théâtre de guérison] (1996). Les résultats de cette comparaison dressent des parallèles et des contrastes entre les deux approches à l'étude. La conclusion aborde l'implication de ces résultats pour la dramathérapie et engage une réflexion sur le potentiel de l'utilisation du théâtre comme thérapie en contexte interculturel.
Investigation on Malian Therapeutic Koteba: comparison between the phases of the dramatic therapeutic process of therapeutic koteba and drama therapy
This study is motivated by a need in the field of drama therapy to investigate other approaches that use theater in a therapeutic context. It aims to increase the current body of knowledge by expanding the understanding of drama therapy's position in mental health within an intercultural perspective. Specifically, this theoretical research compares drama therapy to therapeutic koteba originating from Mali. The comparison looks at the phases of the dramatic therapeutic process of the two interventions. In order to complete this study, a phenomenological investigation first took place to define the structure of the dramatic therapeutic process of therapeutic koteba. This had not previously been defined. Once the phases were identified, they were compared with those found in drama therapy using drama therapist Phil Jones' descriptions in his book Drama as therapy: theater as healing (1996). Comparison results draw parallels and contrasts between the two interventions. The conclusion addresses the implications of the findings for the field of drama therapy and engages a reflection on the use of theater as therapy in intercultural mental health settings.
Boyd, Kathryn 1998
Reclaiming Oneself through the Body
A Look at Embodiment in the Treatment of Sexual Abuse
This paper aims to investigate how embodiment in dramatherapy can be used effectively with children and young people who have experienced the trauma of abuse. This investigation begins by addressing the concept of embodiment, working towards a rich understanding of embodiment and its role within the dramatherapy process. An examination of the relationship between embodiment and the experience of abuse follows. Finally, this paper explores the ways in which embodiment, within dramatherapy, can facilitate growth and healing in victims of abuse.
Embodiment work is a fundamental building block within any dramatherapy process. Embodiment techniques naturally facilitate growth and healing in victims of abuse, because many of the issues which arise out of the experience of abuse are inextricably linked to the embodiment process itself. Abuse occurs to the bodies through which we exist. Embodiment techniques explore what it is to live and feel within these bodies, and provide tools to learn how to use these bodies more effectively.
This paper focuses on the relationship between the experience of sexual abuse and embodiment. However, physical and emotional forms of abuse are also relevant to this discussion, for embodiment as it pertains to abuse, affects the body, involves self perceptions, and relies on the mind body connection.
Boyd, Kathryn 2000
Becoming Oneself: A Call to Action
Drama Therapy with Female Adolescents
This research paper involves a reflection, exploration, and presentation of my dramatherapy work with female adolescents. The work is divided into three parts. Part one details personal beliefs and ideologies that have influenced my approach to drama therapy. These include my ideas about hope, respect, and power dynamics; aspects of social constructionist theory (particularly the notion that all realities are socially constructed); and principles of narrative therapy (namely prioritizing girls' knowledge, sequencing life stories, and externalizing problems). Part one also examines theories and beliefs about adolescent development. The core developmental tasks of adolescence are discussed in relation to gender. Female identity development is addressed in terms of connection, attachment, and relationship. These concepts are then explored in relation to other aspects of female development relevant during adolescence including intimacy, loss, and authenticity. Part two involves the presentation of six clinical vignettes, which connect issues related to female identity development with drama therapy techniques. Role play (in various forms) is discussed as an effective means of exploring identity, externalizing aspects of self, and storying experience. Part three integrates theory and practice. Connections between feminist thought, narrative therapy and drama therapy are made, and a body of professional drama therapy work with adolescents is discussed. In addition, my own methods of practicing dramatherapy are outlined.
Braginton, Katherine N. 2008
Strengthening Emotional Bonds: A Theoretical Exploration of Developmental Transformations and the Facilitation of Attachment between Parents and Children with Autism
This paper explores the drama therapeutic approach of Developmental Transformations and how its inherent play processes may be beneficial to the strengthening of attachment between children with autism and their parents. Through this exploration, theoretical connections will be made linking the potential therapeutic benefits of Developmental Transformations (DvT), an intervention based on a developmental paradigm, to the gaps in developmental functioning seen in those with autism. Many theories advocate children's engagement in play due to its tremendous developmental benefits; however, the action-oriented play approach of DvT has never been applied to children with autism. Benefits of DvT include increased spontaneity, increased physical expression, and an increased ability to access and project internal emotional states, all of which are considered deficient areas in children with autism. This paper also explores attachment theory in relation to the fostering of emotional growth through play interventions. Based on the core deficits associated with autism, some research indicates that children with autism are prone to disorganized attachments. Parental participation in play processes with their children, such as occurs in DvT, facilitates engagement and create a shared experience with their children. Ultimately, this generates meaningful associations for children with autism between the play experience and their parents, thus contributing to the development of securely-attached relationships.
Brigatti, Creusa 2006
Boomerang Effect of Cultural Self-awareness: A heuristic study
Considering my recent immigration to Canada, and understanding that my identity has been profoundly shaped by the culture of the group in which I grew up, I became interested in investigating the possible impact of my cultural background in the therapeutic relationships with my clients – a concern that led me to the discussion of cultural awareness. With the demographics continuously changing around the globe, the literature in the field of mental health demonstrates the increasing need for cultural awareness in order to avoid cultural assimilation or malpractice in the clinical and research settings. There is, however, a lack of practical examples of how professionals can actually achieve such awareness.
Founded on the ideas of Edward T. Hall (1976), the purpose of this heuristic self-inquiry is to share the path I took to expand my own cultural awareness, and by doing so, to demonstrate that an art therapist could approach such a task by leaving her or his comfort zone and creatively work with possible counter-transferences to the experiences. During a two-month cross-cultural art therapy experience in Peru, I investigated my own cultural counter-transferences through visual and written journals. As I journeyed inward, ‘forgotten' cultural assumptions and worldviews that were rooted in my childhood surfaced to my conscious mind: they haunted my dreams, stirred my emotions, and culminated in an encounter with the Shadow side of my personality. Now I remember; now I am more aware.
Briks, Alan 1990
A Theoretical Inquiry into the Nature of Personal Mythology in Relation to Art Therapy
* No abstract
Brodie, Sarah 2007
Art Therapy and Adolescent Parental Bereavement: Case Study of a 14 Year Old Girl
This paper investigates art therapy as a support for the bereavement process following the loss of a parent in adolescence. There is little published literature in art therapy and no empirical data in answer to this question. This descriptive case study provides a unique example of a 14 year-old girl whose terminally ill mother died during the 8 months of weekly art therapy. She was referred for individual art therapy following a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder after assessment by the outpatient psychiatry unit of a pediatric hospital. Verisimilitude is developed through thick description and data is analysed in the tradition of interpretive interactionism (Denzin, 2001). Case material is triangulated with literature that presents adolescent bereavement of a parent as a manifold task. Bereavement is a natural process informed by early attachments and loss, personality, coping skills, social support, and family dynamics. In adolescence, bereavement is also shaped by the psychological development of this stage of life.
Non-directive, client centered art therapy allowed the client to symbolically externalize the tasks of bereavement which were empathically reflected by the art therapist, contained by art therapy, and preserved in the artwork. Working from Simon's (1992; 1996) theory on the symbolism of style in spontaneous painting in art therapy, this case study focuses on the artworks as they reflect the psychodynamic processes of bereavement. Creating meaning from the meaninglessness of death, and internalizing the relationship with the deceased were two tasks of bereavement identified in the art work presented in the case study.
Brodkin, Franceen 2001
Drama Therapy and the Healing Aspects of Acting-Steps towards a Theatrical Model
This paper illustrates the healing effects psychological and emotional of organic acting techniques, and attempts to adapt these techniques to dramatherapy, in order to create the beginnings of a new theatrical model. This work is heuristically influenced, as it involves the researcher writing and performing a dramatic piece, and charting the process, in order to further test the belief in the therapeutic benefits of truthful acting. The theatrical model that emerges emphasizes the importance of improvisational exercises on their own, or as a lead into work on character and text. Also discussed is the selection of appropriate role for the client, as well as how to apply the improvisational techniques to text work. Finally, there is an illustration of a hypothetical dramatherapy session. From past experience, and present research, the conclusion is drawn that these processes are indeed healing, and are viable therapeutic tools to be used in dramatherapy.
Bronstein, Leslie 2007
The nature of bonding as experienced by parent/child dyads, participating in a community theatre project
This paper examines theatre as an effective means of facilitating bonding between parents and children who take part in a theatre production together. It uses, as its main source of research, a real-life community theatre production in which a number of parent-child dyads took part. Following the theoretical structure of therapeutic theatre, all aspects of the production, including, script, casting, rehearsals, direction and performance, were focused on a balance between process and product. Whereas in professional theatre the end goal is the performance, here the experiences gained throughout the entire process, including the performance, were of equal value. Post-performance interviews were held with eight sets of parents and their children to establish how participating in the project affected their relationships. From these interviews it was found that four things helped facilitate instances of bonding: 1) professional attitude towards the time committed to the play; 2) a positive regard or witnessing between each other; 3) the creation of multiple incentives to motivate parents to allow themselves to partake in an activity with their children and; 4) an expansion and exploration of roles outside of both the parents' and the children's habitual interactions.
Bryan, Marion 2005
Investigating Needs of Children with Aggressive Behavior: The Construction of Group Art Therapy Intervention
This construction research project investigated treatment needs of children with aggressive behavior, and based on these deeds, discussed the essential elements for a school-based, group art therapy intervention program. Using a historical/theoretical paradigm, treatment needs for this population were examined from various theoretical perspectives found in an extensive literature review. 15 participants 9considiting of children, childcare specialists, mental health professionals, parents and teachers) were interviewed. Phenomenological analysis of the literature and interviews revealed treatment needs of Prevention, Self-Expression, Relationship, Behavioral Interventions, Groups, Social Skills, Creative Arts and Family and Teacher Communication. Self-Expression was the most commonly identified treatment need. Based on these needs, recommendations are made for the construction of a school-based, Creative-Expressive therapy group. Integral elements of this constructed intervention are presented as sub-categories of the main identified treatment needs. Communication with Teachers and Parents is advised, in combination with Parent Training or Family Therapy. Limitations of this research and implications for the involvement of Creative Arts Therapies in the treatment of children with aggressive behavior are discussed; more research in this area is recommended.
Brun, Véronique, 2006
Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescence: An exploration of the personal unconscious in art therapy
The proposed research consists of a single descriptive case study, exploring the unconscious aspects of anorexia nervosa in the context of art therapy. The general concepts and theories on anorexia nervosa in adolescence will be explored. The psychoanalytic approach will also be of subject in order to inform the reader on the psychoanalytic concepts utilized for this paper. The participant of the study is a 14-year-old outpatient girl diagnosed and treated for anorexia nervosa. Based on Jungian concepts, interpretation of the case material and artwork will be of main subject in order to help identify manifestations of the personal unconscious. Each phase of the art therapy treatment will be explored, including the alliance, the resistance, the problematic and the termination. This study proposes that the use of art in therapy could lead to a better understanding of anorexia nervosa, assuming that art could be a manifestation of unconscious processes. The results of this case study indicate therapeutic progress. No specific causality could be identified. However, a combination of complex issues related to this patient's life experiences could be the cause of anorectic behaviour. Because this research is a single descriptive case study, the results cannot be generalized.
Buckler, Tara R. 2006
Superpowers' Hurricane Towards Junkanoo Inclusion Performance-oriented Drama Therapeutic Process in the Bahamas
The following paper is a description of an applied project. It describes the therapeutic theater process of the Superpowers Junkanoo group that I led at the Frances Rehabilitation Centre in the Bahamas. All group members were Frances residents. Each participant ranged in age, developmental, and physical abilities. They were generally diagnosed as acute-chronic and for the most part, communicated non-verbally.
The Superpowers' performance in the Frances Junkanoo parade was the culmination of a five-month performance-oriented drama therapeutic process. This paper documents how participants worked towards and reached individual goals of increased mobility, emotional expression, independent choice-making and communication to reach towards long-term group goals of heightened self-esteem, community involvement, and improved quality of life.
Bulmer, Leigh 1998
Story Response and Group Response in Therapy: Reflecting on Alida Gersie's Therapeutic Storymaking
Alida Gersie's Therapeutic Storymaking (TSM) method uses structured tasks involving stories which allow individuals to inhabit their life history and foster change. In this paper her TSM method is outlined revealing two principle processes; story response and the influence of group story response. Gersie's theories are then related to Louise Rosenblatt's transactional theory and Hans Gadamer's investigations into hermeneutics to further explain these processes. These theorists agree that story response is the result of the pre understandings of the reader and the text simultaneously acting on each other. Since the story and the reader influence each other, theories are postulated that stories can be transformational. Group story response furthers individual story response and is a result of group member interaction. Gersie's creative expressive response tasks are supported as being a safe and structured way of exploring problems: they benefit by allowing the exploration to occur in a "not knowing" fashion. Further issues pertaining to metaphorical intervention are discussed.
Bulmer, Leigh 2000
Using Picture Books in Drama Therapy with Children: A Therapeutic Model and Annotated Bibliography
In this paper, I combine the methodologies of picture book story response and drama therapeutic exploration. Inspired by Alida Gersie's Therapeutic Storymaking model, I have created a drama therapeutic model that is designed to offer children a sense of belonging through dramatic expression and creativity. Part I of the paper addresses the therapeutic potential of picture books and explains how picture books can be used drama therapeutically with children. The application of my Drama Therapeutic Story Exploration method is described, with reference to therapeutic picture book themes, as well as the dramatic story exploration process, and guidelines for the facilitator. In Part II, 1 offer fifteen picture books accompanied by suggestions for drama therapeutic exploration. The books are collated according to five themes which encourage children to (1) explore the potentials of their bodies, (2) discover the safety of homes and relationships, (3) negotiate conflicts, (4) celebrate their achievements, and (4) address issues of loss and separation.
Burns, Mary 1999
The Use of Ritual in Drama Therapy in Bereavement and Complicated Mourning
This paper aims to examine the use of ritual in drama therapy when applied to bereavement healing. The investigation begins with a discussion of theories of grief and bereavement, with a specific emphasis on complicated mourning related to death from homicide. The theories of many grief experts are discussed, in particular those of Therese Rando, who coined the term "complicated mourning". The paper continues with a discussion of the various burial and funeral rituals commonly used in North American society, and a debate whether these rituals meet the needs of people in mourning.
This paper explores the use of ritual in drama therapy, and examines its potential in aiding the healing of the bereaved. After an examination of the philosophy of ritual in drama therapy, there is an attempt to draw links between the healing properties of ritual and the therapeutic needs of people experiencing complicated mourning. Finally, some tentative conclusions are presented supporting the efficacy of ritual in drama therapy and its benefits in the bereavement process.
Burns, Mary Elizabeth 2000
An Exploration of the Importance of Self care to the Drama Therapy Intern
This paper is an investigation into the self care practices and attitudes of a small number of drama therapy interns. After a review of the literature, the paper examines my own process of discovery of the importance of self care as part of my training. I have also described the ways in which I used drama as part of my self care regimen, and how this has impacted my development as a drama therapist. A discussion of the use of one's art as a method of self care offers some comment on the concept of the drama therapist as practicing artist.
The study goes beyond my own exploration to include the experiences of other drama therapy interns. The research was conducted using phenomenological methods in a heuristic framework. Twenty four students in a creative arts therapies graduate training program completed a survey on self care attitudes and practices. In addition, in depth interviews were conducted with three students in the second year of their drama therapy training.
Finally, the paper offers some tentative conclusions regarding the importance of self-care during the drama therapist's training, and offers suggestions for further areas of research. By examining my own process and the experience of these students, the paper offers some insight into the relationship between self care and healthy student life for the drama therapy intern.
Bye, Kristina 1999
The Drama Therapy Database: A Comprehensive and Interactive Bibliography
Drama therapy is a relatively new method of therapy. In the twenty years it has been acknowledged as a professional field, a large body of literature describing its methods and theories has accumulated. The aim of this project is to catalogue what has been written to date, both by drama therapists and those who use drama therapy techniques. The database contains references for approximately 1400 articles, books and videotapes. The Microsoft program Excel 97 has been used to record the collected resources in a user friendly database. Thus, this project contains three components: a computer disk containing the database itself, a description of the assembly process, and a user's manual. To be able to access the information contained on the disk, the user must have available an IBM compatible computer with Windows 95, a 3 1/2" disk drive, and the computer must have either Excel 97 or Quattro Pro 8 installed on its hard drive. The written component, in two parts includes a description of the assembly process, and contains a number of charts distilling the findings of the database. The second part is a Technical User's Manual, which consists of a clear set of instructions on how use the important functions of the Excel Program. The document contains two appendices. One is a list of the search terms that can be used to refine the database, and the other is a hard copy of the database itself. With this database, an interested party can find all that has been written within the field of drama therapy on any population, theoretical approach or technique, and define searches to their personal needs and interests.
Bye, Kristina 1999
Improvisation as a Building Block of Drama Therapy
Improvisation mirrors life experiences and the interior realities of the improvisor, as well as creates insight and empathy through experimenting with multiple roles. This paper explores improvisation as a fundamental building block of the drama therapeutic process. Some issues addressed include how improvisation grows out of child play and is key in healthy human development; how it builds skills, spontaneity, flexibility and strengthens intuition. The structures of improvisation and the collaborative aspects that allow improvisation to take place are described in depth. Through a review of the literature of drama therapy, and its precursor, developmental drama, this is an attempt to clarify why improvisation is a sire qua non of drama therapy.
Byrne, Jaimie Leigh 2007
Awakening the Voice : A Case Study Analysis of Combined Art and Drama Group Therapy with Adolescent Females who Self-Harm
The main purpose of this research project was to explore how art and drama therapy as a group function can act as a tool for developing increased emotional expression. The research focused on adolescent females experiencing difficulty with emotional expression, who had consequently turned to self harming behaviour as an emotional outlet.
The research aimed to document the therapeutic process of these adolescents as they used art and drama therapy techniques within a group setting to work through their troubles with self harming behaviour. MacAniff Zila & Kiselica (2001) state that there are two main troubles with females who self harm; they have difficulty verbalizing their emotions and they are functioning from a false self. This false self is brought about by denying emotions over a long period of time. From the lack of ability to express themselves verbally, an emotional tension builds up in the body from the internalization of emotions, consequently these girls often turn to self-harm as a form of release of this tension and emotion from their bodies.
Over a fourteen week period, weekly group therapy sessions were held where the participants of this research project learned how to alternately express themselves through art and drama and were encouraged to verbalize their thoughts and emotions to their peers within the safety of the group. The following case study aims to document the group and individual process of four group members as they grew interpersonally and developed a stronger sense of self through art and drama therapy techniques.
Caissy, Madeleine 1992
Application du Travail Créateur de la Thérapie par l'Art au Processus Psychosomatique de I'Hyperemesis Gravidarum
En illustrant ses propos d'une étude de cas, cette thèse tente d'établir un lien permettant au travail créateur d'intervenir dans le processus psychosomatique de I'hyperemesis gravidarum et d'en alléger les symptômes.
Dans le but de considérer les possibilités du travail créateur comme outil d'intervention auprès de cette maladie, il a été nécessaire d'approfondir le concept de somatisation, ses facteurs selon leurs principales origines, sa genèse dans le développement et la valeur symbolique du symptôme. Cette étude est basée sur le fonctionnement du travail créateur comme signe conjugué du corps et de l'esprit. Par le parcours thérapeutique clinique du cas, elle dégage le rôle contributif privilégié qu'il a pu jouer dans l'allègement des symptômes de somatisation.
Cameron, Jane 1996
On the Meaning of Growing Old: Art Therapy with a Group of Institutionalized Elders
The combined effects of the aging process and institutionalization often result in multi losses for the elderly individual. This thesis will examine the ability of the art therapy process to help a group of elders in their struggle to balance the tension between a sense of despair and hope. The dynamics of the creative process has the potential to nourish the soul of the elder, through the provision of a safe container in which to work through the inevitable feelings of despair brought on by illness and impending death.
In addition to the ability of psychotherapy to ease the emotional problems that the aging process may initiate, psychological work with elders can help them to realize that change is ongoing even in later life. This idea is central to George Pollock's mouming liberation process and will be referred to along with an exploration of the capacity of the art therapy process to assist a group of institutionalized elders in their search for meaning and resolution, enabling them to experience transformation and growth in this final stage of living.
Cameron, Shelley J.L. 1996
Art Therapy: A Viable Adjunctive Intervention for Adults Diagnosed with Cancer
Little has been published specifically on the practice and application of art therapy with adults diagnosed with cancer. Using a literature review as the primary methodology, this research explores the viability of the art therapy modality as an adjunctive intervention within the treatment plan of adults diagnosed with the disease of cancer. Situated within the context of "Medical Art Therapy", a broad but brief overview of the current practice of art therapy (and art as therapy) with this population within medical settings is presented. By examining the oncology patients' psycho social issues/tasks of coping with pain, loss (bereavement), and (for some) terminal illness, within theoretical and practical application of art therapy frameworks, contributions to be made by this field's practitioners, within these areas of cancer treatment and care, are evaluated. Of the adjunctive art therapy pain intervention models described, that of Landgarten (1981) is the most comprehensive, encompassing, and replicable. Research conducted outside the field, by Bach (1966, 1975, 1990); Simonton, Simonton, and Creighton (1978); and Achterberg and Lawlis (1984) which laid the foundation for the examination of somatic and/or prognostic evidence in the art of individuals with cancer, and the studies which have followed by those within, are reviewed as possible art therapy assessment and intervention models. In conclusion, the main points of this research are reviewed, with additional criticism offered, and recommendations are made for future research.
Canfield, Sarah 1997
Creativity: Relationship to Health, Pathology and Art Therapy
Although art therapy may be most unique in its encouragement of creativity, the complexity of the creative process in relationship to art therapy requires further detailed examination. Though formal definitions vary significantly, the literature presents creativity as a multifarious process influencing both the individual and society. Certain traits have been identified in conjunction with creativity; however a harmonious multiplicity of features is most critical. During art therapy manifold parts of the self integrate and are manifested through the art product. Creativity in art therapy may be more associated with a process of self discovery, rather than the production of artworks. Eminent production in genius level creativity has been associated with extremes of health and pathology reconciled with high ego strength whereas everyday creativity has been most correlated with mental health implying increased ability for adaptation. Creativity developed through art therapy may extend into the daily life of the client, as in everyday creativity. The peak experience, or increased consciousness associated with the pinnacle of the creative process may contain the most intensive creative syntheses and elevated mental health.
Canfield, Sarah 1998
Creativity in Art Therapy with Older Adults in an Institutional Setting
Humanistic, existential and psychodynamic models present creativity as a complex, multifarious cognitive and affective process culminating in an individual's new vision of reality. Creativity can be experienced in the development of a new product, way of living, or adapting to the environment. Everyday creativity has been correlated with mental health implying increased ability for adaptation. Integration and synthesis of the self in art therapy can enhance the life review processes of the elderly. Thoughts, feelings and experiences can be expressed simultaneously through the graphic qualities of art and in the therapeutic relationship of art therapy. Creative expression of life experiences can facilitate breakthroughs in the elderly person's developmental process of aging including increased adaptation to the environment and increased feelings of integrity and wisdom. A case example of one elderly woman in art therapy highlights the concepts of limitations and adaptation, benefits of creative expression and level of integration and wisdom in relation to the life review process in art therapy. Imagery can create a physical record of the life review process and can facilitate a dialogue concerning the developmental processes of aging.
Caplan, Kerri 2006
Drama Therapy: A possible intervention for drama therapy
The most widely used and most successful treatment for children with autism is known as Intensive Behavioral Intervention (IBI), which allows for a significant increase in cognitive, behavioral and language skills. However, there seems to be a gap in this form of treatment between the known benefits and the possible improvements in emotional expression and social interaction. I have witnessed the gains in cognitive, behavioral and language skills for children with autism receiving IBI, but I have yet to see these children increase their range of emotional expression and social interaction with the aid of IBI. An important question that I would like to pose is: is it possible for other treatments such as Drama Therapy to be an effective intervention for this population and can it fill that gap?
This paper examines the process of two children with autism and the use of drama therapy as an intervention for these children. The first case study looks at the process of a four-year old male with autism who is non-verbal, and the second case study follows the process of a seventeen-year old male with autism who is verbal. The main goal for each child was to have them learn how to express their emotions through drama therapy, as well as increase their social interaction skills through drama therapy. I incorporated the guidelines of non-directive play therapy created by Virginia Axline (1969) and through this incorporation, I witnessed each client learn how to form a new relationship, express their emotions, and learn new social skills.
Caranci , Keena 2007
The Relationship between Major Depressive Disorder, Personality, and Art Therapy
Individuals affected by depression describe a severe state of cognitive, emotional, and physical suffering, as well as immense solitude, a constant state of helplessness and hopelessness, self doubt, and fear (Allen, 2006; Blake, 1995; Funder, 2001; Penden, 2000). The perception of the self becomes skewed to perseverate on negative cognitions (Allen, 2006), thus affecting the personality development of the individual. Reynolds (2000) states, that the psychological state of depression reduces motivation and alters one's self-concept, thereby sabotaging any attempt to combat depression. Through the use of art therapy, one is able to challenge negative beliefs and cognitions, increase competency and control, and re-create the self, extending beyond habitual roles (McNiff, 1976). Thus, the following research is an exploration of the relationship between a life altered by Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the transformation of personality, and the effects of art therapy as it existed for one woman. Through the use of artistic interventions Ginger was able to recognize the significant internal and external losses experienced within her life while simultaneously re-creating and re-affirming her personality.
Carey, Margaret 1985
Re visioning J.'s Case: Four Themes within His Art Therapy
Prompted by an uneasy feeling engendered by further reflection upon my first version, and the idea that case material always remains open to another observation, this thesis re presents the art therapy of an eight year old boy. J.'s is a long term case within which his art and art making process have seemed to foster his identity experience and to contribute to an imaginative integration of unconscious material.
A sample of his art is presented within four image themes which are understood within the framework of object relations and Jungian theory. This presentation is intended to value the primacy of J.'s art in art therapy and to acknowledge the way his images were reworked within the art J therapy context...
Carrier, Serge 2002
Vers un modèle de l'identité professionnelle du dramathérapeute
L'un des fondements qui doivent être établis à l'origine d'une discipline est de déterminer la nature de l'intervenant, ces champs de compétences et ces rôles professionnels. L'identité du dramathérapeute, par la dualité de ces fondements, est difficile à cerner. Le critère sine qua non d'un dramathérapeute est qu'il doit intégrer les aspects artistique et thérapeutique dans ses interventions. Est il un artiste qui laisse agir le pouvoir actualisant de l'art ou un thérapeute qui utilise un médium artistique? Le dramathérapeute est intervenant psychosocial qui intègre implicitement ou explicitement un cadre théorique thérapeutique et un medium artistique, dans la distance métaphorique. Inspiré par la praxéologie de Yves St Arnaud, la conceptualisation de l'identité professionnelle du dramathérapeute se fait par l'articulation de ces rôles et de ces compétences, à l'intérieur d'une fenêtre d'intervention aux dimensions variable pour, à la fois, représenter tous les dramathérapeutes, et respecter leurs particularités propres.
Carrier, Serge 2002
Toward a Model of the Professional Identity of a Dramatherapist
One of the foundations that has to be established at the beginning of a discipline is to determine the nature of the practitioner, their competencies and their professional roles. The identity of the dramatherapist, by its dual foundation is difficult to define. The sine qua non criteria is that it needs to include both artistic and therapeutic aspects. But is it an artist trust in the actualizing power of drama or a psychotherapist who uses an artistic medium? The dramatherapist is a psychosocial practitioner who, implicitly or explicitly, integrates a therapeutic frame of reference and an artistic medium by means of metaphoric distance. Inspired by the praxeology of Yves St Arnaud, the professional identity of a dramatherapist can be conceptualized by articulating of its roles and competencies. The author designs a 'window', of varying dimensions to simultaneously represent all dramatherapists as well as acknowledging their differences.
Carsen, Johanni 1989
An Inquiry into the Phenomenon of Written Words in Graphic Images: Towards a Semiotics of Art Therapy
This thesis will explore the phenomenon of written words as they occur in the drawn image within the context of art therapy sessions. A brief review of selected art therapy literature will serve as a current indication of art therapists' limited level of understanding of this topic. The merits of an inter disciplinary approach will be put forward. An investigation will be carried out into bias involving: 1) influences of modernist ideology and 2) areas of conflation involving the concepts of orality and literacy that have contributed to the limited discussion of this topic within the field of art therapy. Different typologies of written word combinations will be presented and discussed based upon historical precedents. This thesis hopes to refine and expand the commonly used term of `the image' in art therapy to one of `the text' that will encompass both pictorial and word elements, as well as to set up guide posts which will help others to explore further this and related areas of inquiry in the field.
Casabianca, Silvia 1992
Art Therapy with Families Where Child Abuse Has Occurred
Art Therapy was conducted with families whose family systems were dysfunctional. Ten families were seen in a clinic facility and assessed through art. Five of these families were referred because of abnormal behavior displayed by children at school, which made their teachers suspect maltreatment at home. The other cases were attending the clinic because of violence in the family, and were referred through the regular clinic channels.
Commonalities were looked for in the art process, the art products, the therapeutic relationship, family structure and family interactions. Families were seen in different, unstructured one and one half hour sessions. Family members were asked to draw. Their free drawings, self portraits and family portraits were reviewed. Five of the cases are described in detail.
Physical maltreatment may be seen as rooted in cultural and parental attitudes about child rearing practices. In such cases, the socioeconomic condition of the families seemed directly related to the occurrence of child neglect, scapegoating and abuse. On the other hand, multiple stressors that lead to severe dysfunction, family disruption, and a child's transient way of life seem to form a complex in which maltreatment "flourishes". These concurrent life characteristics make it difficult to ascribe commonalities observed in the drawings of the different families solely to maltreatment. Most adult drawings were infantile, while children, s drawings appeared to be appropriate to their developmental stages. Themes were usually simple and concrete in both adult and children's art tasks. None of the children included themselves in the family portraits. Several children drew sun and moon in the same composition in what could be considered symbolization of ambivalent feelings towards caretakers. Identification with aggressors was also portrayed. Art tasks, particularly with children, seemed to serve as an expressive outlet for repressed feelings.
A larger sample of families would be needed to confirm a relation between the observed commonalities and child abuse.
Chafe, Catherine 1995
Art Therapy with Females Having Anorexia Nervosa: Etiological and Treatment Considerations
This paper examines why more females are affected by anorexia than males. An overview of western countries' sociocultural eating behaviour norms is given and distinctions are then made between these norms and anorexia nervosa (AN) symptomology. Various etiological theories are discussed and family systems are explored in relation to feminine sex role socialization in our western culture; incorporating the superwoman standard of our culture as a partial explanation for the increase in the prevalence of eating disorders over the past 25 years. A critical analysis of a women are naturally nurturing position is followed by an investigation of gender identity acquisition. Why AN develops over other psychopathologies is then examined. The task to be resolved by females having anorexia nervosa and the facilitation of this process through the art therapy modality are explored in relation to the family, as well as in connection with gender identity and its concomitant psychological attributes.
Chafe, Catherine 1996
A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of a Female Anorectic Patient's Description of an Art Therapy Experience: A Combined Approach to Art Therapy Research
This paper explores one differentially diagnosed anorectic person's experience of art therapy in an attempt to determine the effects of a primarily existential art therapy approach. The experience was analyzed empirically and phenomenologically, with both sets of data suggesting that art therapy facilitated the development of ego strength. There was a significant change (p< .01) in the number of people depicted in the art done at the end phase of treatment as compared with the art done at the beginning phase. The effective elements of the art therapy, from a treatment standpoint, appear to include the teaching of metaphoric visual language and interoceptive awareness, a strong holding environment, and the art therapist's empathetic responses. The effective components of the art therapy as a treatment modality appear to include the cathartic and mediating qualities of the process. Themes reported in the art therapy literature on anorexia nervosa have largely been unsupported in this study, with the exception of double traps and stereotypes. Areas for future research are discussed.
Chainey Gauthier, Andrée 1993
Les métaphores dans la production artistique de deux femmes souffrant de dépression bipolaire
Cette recherche donne un aperçu psychiatrique, psychologique et social de la maniaco dépression. Elle souligne aussi l'avantage des méthodes projectives utilisés via le dessin, soit dans un but d'évaluation de la personne ou dans un but thérapeutique. Cette recherche tente d'établir un lien entre la lecture de la projection littéraire et la lecture de la projection picturale, l'image littéraire et l'image picturale laissant toutes deux percevoir la présence d'un processus métaphorique. Cette analyse entrevoit la possibilité que les images, chargées de métaphores, aient un sens propre à chaque individu. Récupérée par l'art thérapeute, la métaphore devient donc le message secret dans lequel se situe la force du moi, l'énergie positive du malade. C'est à partir de cette dynamique qu'il serait possible d'entreprendre une thérapie. Cette hypothèse est soutenue grâce à la documentation picturale obtenue auprès de deux femmes maniaco dépressives au cours de douze séances individuelles de thérapie par l'art.
Chen See, Cylene Joanna 1997
The Art of Dying: The Formulation & Application of an Art Therapy Program & Research Model within a Palliative Care Setting
In the past, there have been several articles written regarding the introduction and integration of art therapy into palliative care, with varying levels of success. This paper outlines the theoretical basis and practical experience of the full time art therapy intern as part of an interdisciplinary team. The opportunity has allowed both art therapist and medical team to view the immense possibilities of art therapy as an integral part of palliative care. Art therapy interventions have included client created art work, client-directed art work, group/family assessments/interactions, and a weekly Creative Arts Group for clients and staff Image making has also been instrumental in life review, and relaxation techniques in individual sessions.
In order to further explore the theories and symbols behind the concepts of death, grief, mourning and dying in the light of palliative care and personal experience, the development, implementation, and outcome of this art therapy program has become the basis for the formulation of a research project. This research methodology addresses this experience in that it may aid in the assessment of the impact of an art therapy program with this population. This paper outlines the theoretical basis and along with the formulation and initial pilot implementation of this model within the setting.
*Please note that due to the methodology utilized in this setting, all illustrations are reconstructions of what was accomplished in therapy, as close and as true to form as possible
Ciona, Christine Dion 2001
When Cancerman Comes for Dinner: A Therapeutic Exploration of Story and Role through Self revelatory Performance
The intention of this thesis is to explore how self revelatory performance can be used as a tool for self exploration and transformation, specifically in relationship to personal roles and story. The author discusses her process of creating and performing "When Cancerman Comes For Dinner" and how this form of dramatherapy offered a means to explore roles (Superhero, Monster, and Baby) in relationship to her personal story of childhood cancer, and how this self revelatory performance journey provided personal insights and therapeutic change. Literature regarding the therapeutic value of storytelling, narrative therapy, role theory, theatre, self revelatory performance and the role of the audience will be presented.
Clark, Ava 2007
Oscillating Between Chaos and Order: Self Organization in the Creative Process
This research explores the creative process, specifically focusing on the dynamics between order and chaos. This research aims to discover whether an oscillation between chaos and order is involved in the creative process. The notion of the creative process as a self organizing system is also an underlying framework that supports this investigation. Literature related to the creative process, psychological theory, art therapy, and self organization will inform, explore and support this inquiry. Implications for art therapy practice and mental health will also be discussed and emphasized. The design of this study is a blend of theoretical and phenomenological research, incorporating interviews with three visual artists to illustrate and examine theoretical concepts. Eight themes were uncovered thorough the data analysis, and are supported by direct participant quotes and theoretical material. A natural striving towards wellness and adaptation is reflected in creativity as a communicative, and transformative, tool which brings chaos to order. Accepting the chaos and recognizing oscillations within the creative process, and within the therapeutic context, is paramount in facilitating transformation and insight that may bring the artist or client to a new level in their process.
Clarkson, Peggy 1995
Ethics and Art Exhibitions: An Historical and Contemporary Overview of the Psychoaesthetic Interface between Art Therapy, Mental Illness, and Art History
This research paper accompanies an educational slide record of 100 artworks both historical and contemporary created by persons with mental illness. The slides were taken for: Humanis Condicio: Art and the Human Condition, a future exhibition of artwork created in both psychiatric hospital and community therapeutic art settings in Montreal, Canada. Expansion of the traditional therapeutic frame and recognition of the therapeutic benefits and questions raised by art therapy exhibitions is highlighted. The existence of historical artworks done in a therapeutic context presents unique ethical dilemmas in art therapy research and exhibitions. The desire to include these works in the potential exhibition led to the efforts to release them from the Allan Memorial Institute. The current concern for ethical considerations has underlined the need for revision of past standards in the presentation of historical works, such as those at the A.M.I. in light of contemporary ethical approaches in art therapy and medical research. The balance between the need to preserve, recognize and study these powerful images and respect former patient/artist ethical rights is examined in light of historic and contemporary changes in art therapy, medical ethics and psychiatry. The need to deconstruct the historic collections and psychiatric social context which stigmatized the art and artist resulting in 'double marginalization' is examined. Fascination with these spontaneous art works ('Outsider Art', 'Art Brut' or 'Raw Art') bridges psychiatry, psychology, art history, art therapy, and traditional medical/therapeutic ethics. Historic collectors of this art primarily determined interpretation of meaning and the art was often considered a record of the former patient's psychiatric treatment. Artist subjectvity in terms of artistic process and product received little historic attention. Contemporary psychoaesthetic ethical principles in art therapy seek to empower the artist, art and the community.
Cloutier, Suzanne, 2006
Art-thérapie en debriefing: méthode d'intervention préventive de la traumatisation vicariante chez les intervenants
Plusieurs recherches contemporaines confirment la possibilité, pour les thérapeutes œuvrant auprès d'une clientèle ayant vécu des traumatismes, ou souffrant de syndrome de stress post-traumatique (SSPT), de développer un phénomène de traumatisation vicariante semblable au syndrome de stress post-traumatique. Dans la littérature portant sur ce sujet, ce phénomène se nomme stress traumatique secondaire (STS). La présente recherche décrit l'application d'une méthode d'intervention, conçue par l'auteure, alliant l'art-thérapie et la débriefing. Cette méthode a été développée à partir du Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) (Mitchell & Everly, 1993, 1996, 2002) lequel se déroule en sept étapes. L'auteure a substitué, à la quatrième étape du CISD, laquelle s'adresse à l'affect de l'usager, une étape d'art-thérapie. L'objectif de cette recherche consiste à étudier les effets préventifs d'une intervention hybride basée sur l'intégration de l'art-thérapie et du débriefing sur les symptômes de STS et d'épuisement professionnel.
Neuf travailleuses sociales exerçant leur profession auprès d'une clientèle d'immigrants en attente du statut de réfugié ont été sélectionnées. Ce groupe a été scindé en deux: le groupe expérimental formé de cinq participantes auprès desquelles la méthode nommée "art-thérapie en débriefing" a été appliquée et le groupe témoin qui n'a reçu aucune intervention, cette procédure permettant de comparer les résultats obtenus. Un pré-test et un post-test mesurant la présence de symptômes de STS et/ou d'épuisement professionnel a été complété par les participantes au début et à la fin de l'expérience. L'analyse des données a montré que chez le groupe expérimental ayant reçu trois séances d'interventions la moyenne quant au risque de développer le stress traumatique secondaire (STS) ou/et l'épuisement professionnel a été réduite de façon substantielle.
L'intégration de l'art-thérapie au débriefing a permis également de dégager les éléments art-thérapeutiques essentiels à cette approche, soient les phénomènes de symbolisation, de distanciation et d'intentionnalité. La présente dissertation rend compte de cette expérience et termine en proposant certaines recommandations pour des recherches futures.
Cloutier, Denise 1999
L'art thérapie avec les adolescents cliniquement dépressifs
On a généralement tendance à croire que la dépression est attribuée uniquement aux adultes. C'est faux, car la dépression peut frapper autant let 1'adolescent que l'adulte. Tous les adolescents ne sont pas nécessairement déprimés ou dépressifs et tous ne vivent pas nécessairement une crise d'identité mais on peut percevoir chez plusieurs d'entre eux une profonde souffrance et un mal de vivre. C'est en particulier les facteurs qui occasionnent ce mal de vivre que je tenterai d'expliquer dans le chapitre 1. Dans le quotidien de l'adolescent, ce mal de vivre se traduit par de l'humeur mélancolique, le manque d'estime de soi et de motivation ainsi qu'une dévalorisation de soi qui entraînera parfois des états dépressifs comme je l'expliquerai dans le chapitre 2. Le désespoir grandissant de ces adolescents peut parfois les conduire au suicide, dernière alternative possible pour soulager leurs souffrances. Sujet que j'aborderai au chapitre 3 à l'aide de lectures détaillant des hypothèses concernant la dépression.
Le phénomène de suicide chez les jeunes est un phénomène de société. Comme citoyen, nous avons tous des responsabilités et un rôle à jouer auprès des adolescents, jeunes adultes en devenir. Nous verrons, qu'il est particulièrement important que tous les intervenants de même que les parents, enseignants et amis, travaillent ensemble à contrer cette vague de suicides chez les jeunes. Je tenterai également de démontrer que dépression et suicide sont étroitement liés. De plus, j'aborderai la possibilité de médication comme traitement chez les adolescents. Sujet controversé par plusieurs intervenants en santé mentale. Nous verrons également dans le chapitre 4 que différentes approches en Art thérapie et techniques à court et à long terme peuvent être bénéfiques dans le traitement des adolescents dépressifs.
Cloutier, Denise 2000
La créativité pour aider les schizophrènes à diminuer leurs anxiétés et à établir de liens avec le monde extérieur
La maladie fait partie de la vie, si je peux m'exprimer ainsi. Il y aurait donc une ou plusieurs probabilités qu'à une certaine époque de sa vie, une personne faisant partie d'une population donnée soit atteinte de maladies physiques ou mentales. Cet événement circonstanciel et traumatisant de la vie peut se produire à tout âge et atteindre toutes les sphères de la société. La maladie touche tout le monde sans exception et sans distinction. Elle se retrouve donc parmi toutes les classes sociales de notre société en passant par les plus démunis, les gens de la classe moyenne ou les plus nantis de notre monde moderne.
Dans ce travail de recherche, je me suis particulièrement intéressée aux personnes qui souffrent de schizophrénie. Cette pathologie atteint plus particulièrement la population masculine, mais se retrouve également en nombre plus restreint chez la population féminine. Pour réaliser ce travail, je me suis intéressée à une personne de sexe féminin qui souffre de schizophrénie depuis plusieurs années. Elle s'exprime aisément à travers différentes formes d'arts et je pourrais même dire que, pour elle, s'exprimer par fart est une question de survie. L'art thérapie est un outil qui possède un grand pouvoir libérateur et un moyen d'expression très puissant. De plus, il permet à l'art thérapeute de créer l'alliance thérapeutique et de s'engager dans un processus de guérison. Comme il est difficile pour les personnes qui souffrent de schizophrénie d'établir des liens avec le monde extérieur, nous essaierons de les aider à créer des liens au moyen de l'art thérapie. C'est ce que nous tenterons de découvrir tout au long de cette aventure qu'est la recherche!
Coady, Cindy 2002
Towards a Transpersonal Drama Therapy
This paper describes the need for a transpersonal drama therapy method, and explores the possibilities of what that may look like. The end result will be the creation of a new transpersonal model of drama therapy out of a synthesis of a transpersonal psychologist's ideas and the method of a drama therapist. The work connects the concepts of the Diamond approach in transpersonal psychology with that of Johnson's developmental transformation method in drama therapy. This work advocates that we should not only define spiritual wellness but also incorporate and integrate its construct within our field. As drama therapists we need to become more aware and sensitive to the spiritual dimensions that exist within all of us, to take into account the existence of spiritual aspects of personality and to embrace this resource for growth and change through the use of transpersonal drama therapy.
Colangelo, Angela 2002
"If I tell you a story, will you promise to hear it?" A Journey towards Understanding One's Personal Story in the Context of Their Family Story Through a Self-Revelatory Performance Process
The purpose of this study was to explore how the use of the rehearsal process and Self-Revelatory performance could help achieve a deeper understanding of the author's personal story in the context of her larger family story. Through the rehearsal process, various childhood and adulthood themes spontaneously emerged and were explored using play, enactment and other drama therapy tools. The culmination of this process was a Self-Revelatory Performance, after which interaction and sharing amongst audience members as well as further reading and settling of themes, theories and thoughts provided the author with personal insights and understanding.
Connor, Cynthia 1990
The Lion that Barked: An Exploration of Arts and Dramatic Play with a Child who is Nonverbal
The following examination provides insight into the gradual development of an individualized art and dramatic play program for a nine-year old girl who has an intellectual impairment, and is nonverbal. This thesis provides a general understanding of adaptation and the dialogical experience between myself as an educator/researcher and the subject as well as our engagement in interchanging roles as both learners and teachers. An active humanistic approach to education is applied, emphasizing the optimal development of the child.
Based on Tina's experimentation with various art media, a program was designed to meet her unique needs. The development of a revised program based on an initial proposal is discussed; descriptions are provided of the sessions in the final program combining three dimensional construction and dramatic play.
From this investigation, a general model was developed for adaptive intervention and ten principles retroactively seen as underlying the art program with Tina were also established. Both this model and the guidelines for conducting an art program could be taken into consideration with other children like Tina if modified according to their individual needs.
Cooke, Sally V. 1999
Art Therapy as a Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa in Adolescents: A Case Study
The subject of this research paper is adolescent anorexia nervosa and art therapy. The paper explores and reviews the suitability of art therapy for teenagers suffering from this illness. Specifically, it addresses the question: "How does art therapy help treat the teenager diagnosed with anorexia nervosa?" As background information for this inquiry, the paper provides a definition of anorexia nervosa, gives a synopsis of its historical context and describes what is its etiology, according to the literature. It then considers the issue of treatment, describing what is written in the literature about treatment approaches, both medical and psychological. The role of art therapy as a specific treatment option for anorexia nervosa is then examined. In this examination, relevant literature is synthesized to describe how elements of art therapy, such as the art materials and the art product are beneficial. Against this theoretical background, a case study is then presented. The case material and the information from the literature are discussed, highlighting how art therapy was effective in the treatment.
Cooney, Kimberly 1995
A Comparison of Analytic Group Art Therapy and Interactional Media Oriented Group Art Therapy through the Examination of Group Metaphor as Indicative of Group Processes/Phases
This study is a descriptive analysis and exploration of the processes of two very distinct styles of group art therapy: Analytically Oriented Group Art Therapy and Interactional Media Oriented Group Art Therapy. A brief overview of the history of the often "opposing" approaches lies the foundation for the investigation and comparison of these two individual techniques.
While exploring the personal therapeutic styles of the group art therapist, as well as the inherent group processes that exist within each group setting, the use of spontaneous group metaphor is examined in terms of reflecting the stage or phase that the group is treading. These findings are further supported by the postulations of a selection of certain group theorists such as Yalom, Bion, Schutz, and Srivastva & Barrett.
Corbeil, Christiane Monique 1987
The Use of Art Therapy with Individuals in Whom Physical Pain and Symptoms are Main Modes of Expression for the Unconscious, Presented in an Archetypal Perspective
This thesis includes references to Jungian psychological theory and descriptions of the practice of art therapy.
In the first part, the selected archetypal theory interprets the personality traits of individuals in each of whom there appears to be a conscious/unconscious disconnection. The focus is on two archetypes the persona, the shadow. The anima and the animus will be referred to also. Relevant images are presented mainly as examples of these main archetypes; therefore symbols are not analyzed in a reductive way.
Also, this first chapter contains occasional reference to pertinent personal experience regarding my own individuation process and images created in the analytical context.
Three case studies are presented in the second chapter. They are cases of patients who have been referred for Art Therapy by the hospital's pain clinic.
Each case study is composed of a detailed description of important sessions, and corresponding discussion reflecting the theory presented in the first chapter. The patients' images are analyzed in terms of verbalization and symbolic meaning.
Complementary approaches to art therapy, such as: A. Mindell's "Dreambody" [Mindell, 1985] approach and the use of touch as a therapeutic tool, as described by Anita Green [Green A. 1984] are presented in the third chapter. The concluding chapter consists of a review of the case studies, in the light of my reflections, mainly in terms of transference and countertransference issues. Other pertinent art therapy aspects are briefly discussed.
Cormier, Brandie 1998
Group Art Therapy with Adolescents
The area in art therapy this paper addresses is group art therapy. From my work with groups, I have developed an interest in what the particular benefits are of working with groups and how the dynamics of the group affect change. My work with teenagers suggests that group art therapy potentially could benefit them.
The purpose of this research paper is to look at different approaches to group therapy and group art therapy and explore through the literature if the group focus is an effective way to treat adolescents. To do this, I will explore group psychotherapy, and art therapy adapted for groups. I will then examine what aspects of the group therapy experience are particularly relevant to adolescents and their development. Finally I will look at the role of the therapist and what type of therapist is most effective in treating adolescents.
Cormier, Brandie 1999
Attachment Theory and Art Therapy: Indications of Attachment in the Art Therapy of Two Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder
Linking art therapy to attachment theory, this paper hypothesizes that children reenact, and have the opportunity to repair, their attachment styles in art therapy through the art materials and their artistic process. Children's art in art therapy provides tangible indicators of their attachment styles. The focus is on two insecure ways of attaching, which are the avoidant and resistant/ambivalent attachment styles. Establishing a secure base in art therapy is explored; the therapist does this through the art materials and how he/she responds to the client. Providing a secure base enables the art therapist to help children repair insecure attachment styles. Certain art materials and/or activities are described as indicating attachment because they have qualities that symbolically relate to attaching and detaching, which are attachment behaviors. These behaviors are explored through the acts of taping, gluing, tying, stapling, and cutting. The paper finishes by drawing conclusions regarding which art activities seem to relate to the children's hypothesized attachment styles.
Dahl, Brittany Portia 2005
Integrating Sociodrama Techniques with Restorative Justice Principles: A Socio-Justice Model
This research project theoretically explores how a culture of community conflict resolution may develop through the integration of sociodrama techniques with restorative justice principles. The integration of these tow approaches is termed socio-justice. The socio-justice model seeks to create a culture of community conflict resolution by educating community members about the benefits of participating in restorative justice programs and encouraging them to take a collective approach to responding to instances of crime.
A limitation of this paper is that evaluative methods need to be present in order to substantiate a theory or program. This limitation is addressed by providing sample sociojustice programs. Notwithstanding, the socio-justice model is presented as a preliminary work for further exploration. Facilitators are encouraged to use the socio-justice program as a creative method of exploring and understanding community members' ideas, feelings, needs and concerns about crime.
Dasseville, Violaine 2002
Exploration des caractéristiques graphiques du temps vécu dans la dépression majeure à travers le dessin d'une ligne de vie
This research paper examines the graphic life line drawings of depressed people as a media revealing the features of lived time in depression. In the first part many theories are presented to explain depression, including phenomenological and psychological contributions to the theory of depression, and supporting theories within the context of art and art therapy. An in depth literature review of the disorder is presented, focussing on a summary of all symptomatic and subjective features that pertain to time distortion and its possible equivalents in graphic expression. This first part is including a critical integration of the psychological theories about depression, the phenomenological perspectives of lived time in depression, the developmental and psychopathological aspects of time. In the second part, 11 graphic-life-line drawings, including: three graphics of major depressive persons, five graphics of various depressive persons in remission and three graphics of non psychiatric persons, are described and compared. The paper is concluded with a summary of relevant graphic-life-line features pertaining to the major depressive disorder. These features are the following ones : the overall graphic is oriented towards an ascendant diagonal, lines are jagged and small, the graphic is discordant with the plane, the pressure of the line is weak , the figures are small and oriented to the left, there is no open perspective.
Dasseville, Violaine 2002
Exploration des caractéristiques graphiques du temps vécu dans la dépression majeure à travers le dessin d'une ligne de vie
Cette recherche explore les caractéristiques graphiques des dessins de ligne de vie de patients souffrant de dépression majeure. La dépression est envisagée dans cette recherche selon un point de vue essentiellement phénoménologique, c'est-à-dire comme un phénomène subjectif de distorsion du rapport au temps. Dans cette recherche, nous émettons l'hypothèse que les particularités du temps vécu dans la dépression majeure s'expriment à travers le dessin d'une ligne de vie et plus précisément par des caractéristiques graphiques spécifiques. Cette recherche comporte un versant théorique et un versant exploratoire. Le versant théorique comporte une revue de la littérature sur les conceptions phénoménologiques, psychologiques, psychiatrique et art-thérapeutique de la dépression. Le versant exploratoire comporte une observation, une description et une comparaison des caractéristiques graphiques de 11 dessins de ligne de vie de personnes souffrant de dépression majeure, de dépressions diverses en rémission et de personnes en bonne santé. A partir de ces informations, nous concluons que le rapport au temps dans la dépression majeure s'exprime dans le dessin de ligne de vie par les caractéristiques suivantes : la tendance du graphe à s'orienter selon une diagonale ascendante, des lignes en dents de scie de petites amplitudes, une discordance du graphe par rapport au plan, une pression faible du trait, un graphe discret, des symboles de petite taille orientés vers la gauche et l'absence d'espace consacré à une perspective future.
Davidson, Catherine 2003
Breaking Water in Art Therapy
Case Study of Charles: MultiAxial Diagnosis Including Separation Anxiety and Premature Birth
This paper will explore the primary research question: How can Art Therapy offer reparative experiences for a child with behavioral difficulties related to Separation Anxiety Disorder? Through a case study and literature review I will demonstrate that such reparative experiences are interactive in a twofold dimensional conceptualization of the art therapy process. The first is carried out in the realm of play and supported art making; the second one properly takes place in the relationship between the therapist and child. The subsidiary research question addressed is: What are the conditions leading to separation anxiety in general and in particular, in the case of Charles?
Through Charles' play with art materials, a therapeutic alliance was promptly established. Charles was able to eventually gain enough confidence that allowed him to relax sufficiently to engage in a symbolic process that seemed reparative, on a number of levels, for experiences surrounding his premature birth. In accordance with attachment theory, it can be hypothesized that these experiences laid a foundation for behaviours and parent/child relations which eventually were diagnosed as Separation Anxiety Disorder and a Parent/Child Relational Problem. A short explanation of Bowlby's theory of attachment will be addressed to solidify these points.
Charles seemed to have made a progression from what first appeared as oppositional behaviour and chaotic artwork to that of more cooperative behaviour, order and symbolic representations of what he needed to express. He utilized materials well to make his needs known and to get out his many mixed emotions, rendering creative expressions to work through his conflicts. These appear to fit into the category of Winnicott's Object Relations which involves a processing of transitional phenomena. Through the creation of transitional objects, Charles was able to move from object relating to object usage, thereby, achieving a more solid ego or self that is more at ease with the world of others. Charles' use of art materials is described in a case study and then discussed and analyzed through the five different ways of using art materials that art therapist, Edith Kramer, has outlined and put together for considering a child's work with art materials. She has further related these to Winnicott's theory of Object Relations.
In conclusion, I will address the issue of memory retained at the time of birth, quoting the controversial work of T.Verny (1981) and offering a suggestion for future investigation in this area.
Davis, Sora 2004
Images of Existential Solitude: Experience and Expression in Art Therapy
Existential solitude is one of the inevitable experiences of human existence, and may be an element of the existential questioning that many individuals bring to therapy. This exploratory study investigates how the use of art therapy research interviews, and through extrapolation, art therapy sessions themselves, may offer to the image-maker new insights that inform and transform her experience of the phenomenon of being alone in the world. It also looks at common themes that emerge from the verbal and visual descriptions of the participants. Four women who were concurrently involved in different expressive therapy groups participated in the research. Based primarily on the phenomenological method while drawing on hermeneutic inquiry, individual semi-structured and phenomenological art therapy research interviews were conducted along with a follow-up interview with each participant. Data was analyzed using a combination of qualitative approaches in order to extract themes. The findings of this pilot study showed that the use of art-making in the presence of a therapeutic other produced new insights into the experience of existential solitude for the participants, and applications of this approach are discussed.
de Beaumont, Marie-Carole 2002
The autistic barriers in art-therapy
This research is the observation of autistic barriers presented in art-therapy with two patients who suffer from diverse somatization problems. This is a case study, in which psychoanalytical epistemology is theoretically supported by several modern theories of the primitive development of self and object relations, notably ‘autistic barriers' by Frances Tustin (1990) and ‘autistic-contiguous position' by Thomas Ogden (1989). In this research, it is proposed that fibromyalgia and self mutilation, in the cases studied, are primitive autistic defense mechanisms, like the ones described by Tustin. Ogden's theory, on the other hand, permits one to theoretically position the persistence of these autistic defense phenomena in people suffering from diverse somatization problems. Ogden introduces, within the post-kleinian theory, a first position, one of object relations, named “the autistic-contiguous” position as well as a conceptual dialectic of the functioning psyche. The autistic-contiguous position is conceived as the primitive and sensory background of the paranoid-schizoid position. This research will also attempt to describe and distinguish autistic-contiguous (Ogden) and paranoid-schizoid (Klein) positions.
Two clinical cases will be presented, offering signs of the presence of autistic defensive mechanisms throughout the study. The conclusions of this study will permit art-therapy to be seen as a therapy of choice, capable of transforming asymbolic experiences to symbolic ones.
de Beaumont, Marie-Carole 2002
Les barrières autistiques en art-thérapie
Cette recherche porte sur l'observation des barrières autistiques dans la rencontre art-thérapeutique avec deux patientes présentant diverses problématiques de somatisation. Il s'agit d'une étude de cas, informée par une épistémologie psychanalytique et s'appuyant, au plan théorique, sur différentes théories contemporaines du développement primitif du moi et de la relation d'objet, dont les concepts des barrières autistiques de Frances Tustin (1990) et de la position autistique-contiguë de Thomas Ogden (1989). La présente recherche se propose d'envisager la fibromyalgie et l'automutilation chez les patientes étudiées comme des mécanismes défensifs primitifs autistiques, tels qu'ils ont été décrits par Frances Tustin. Le modèle théorique de Ogden, quant à lui, en introduisant au sein de la théorie post-kleinienne de la relation d'objet une première position d'objet, la position autistique-contiguë, ainsi qu'une conceptualisation dialectique du fonctionnement psychique, permet de situer sur le plan théorique la persistance de ces phénomènes défensifs autistiques chez des personnes souffrant de diverses problématiques de somatisation. La position autistique-contiguë étant conçue comme l'arrière-plan primitif et sensoriel de la position paranoïde-schizoïde, cette recherche a également pour objectif de décrire et distinguer les positions autistique-contiguë et paranoïde-schizoïde.
Sur le plan clinique, deux études de cas seront présentées, offrant chacune un témoignage de l'utilisation de modalités autistiques, et ce, dans les différents aspects de la rencontre thérapeutique. Les conclusions de cette recherche permettent d'envisager l'art-thérapie comme un moyen thérapeutique de choix, capable de réinscrire les expériences asymboliques autistiques dans le champ de la symbolisation.
Derouaux, Karin 2007
The Home-based Art Therapy in Families with Seriously Ill Children: A Heuristic Inquiry
This heuristic study is an exploration of an art therapy student's practicum experience working with ill children and their siblings in their homes. Pragmatic issues include isolation, the therapist's safety and challenges of traveling, scheduling, and providing art materials. Therapeutic issues are difficulties collecting information from busy parents, acclimating to the overwhelming physical and emotional space, and tolerating chaos in the therapy environment. The emotional effect of seeing medical paraphernalia in the home, as well as issues surrounding privacy, instruction, and discipline are also explored, as are the therapeutic frame, accepting food and gifts, and the role of language in the therapy. Balancing family focus with client focus, interacting with parents, counter-transference reactions to the home environment, client secrecy, and termination issues were also relevant. Finally, the author describes in detail her emotional and philosophical reaction to the death of a client, and explores the meaning of home.
Deschamps, Bénédicte 2001
Art therapy, a door towards sacred space for women who are incarcerated
This study pertains to the practice of art therapy in a correctional facility for women. The majority of incarcerated women have been physically or sexually abused, abandoned or neglected. Low self esteem and a sense of powerlessness are among the long standing effects of these traumatic childhood experiences. This research aims to see if incarcerated women can develop a feeling of personal power within an environment impacted by authority relations. Sacred space is envisioned as the place where such a development can occur, and art therapy as a means to access this place. Eleven participants explore the idea of sacred space within a group. One woman continues her exploration within individual sessions. Relaxation and visualization exercises are used as a source of inspiration for the artwork. Research data is provided by the images, the verbatim transcripts of recorded sessions, and direct observation. Literature on sacred space, from areas such as anthropology, religious studies, psychology and art history, are consulted to provide a framework for the data analysis and interpretation. The results indicate that the participants were able to access sacred space, and that within this space one can experience a symbolic death and rebirth and acquire a feeling of personal power. However, because very few women consented to participate in this project, it is intimated that sacred space may represent both what incarcerated women want and what they fear: the return to a symbiotic state. Consequently, this research concludes that a non directive approach might offer a more appropriate way to respond to the needs of women who are incarcerated. It is also mentioned that references to Kernberg and Kohut's theories regarding the development from symbiosis to separation would add to the interpretations offered in this study.
Deschamps, Bénédicte 2001
L'art thérapie, une porte vers un espace sacré pour les femmes qui sont incarcérées
Cette étude porte sur la pratique de l'art thérapie en milieu carcéral féminin. La majorité des femmes incarcérées ont vécu des traumatismes dans l'enfance qui se traduisant par un manque d'estime de soi et d'autonomie. En raison de ces facteurs, cette recherche s'applique à voir si elles peuvent développer un sentiment de pouvoir personnel à même un lieu où elles sont assujetties à l'autorité. Le moyen entrevu pour les aider à cette tâche est de les guider vers un espace sacré par le biais de l'art-thérapie. Onze participantes explorent ce thème au sein d'un groupe. Une d'entre elles poursuit son exploration dans le cadre de rencontres individuelles. Des exercices de relaxation et de visualisation servent comme source d'inspiration pour la création des images. Les données de recherche proviennent des œuvres d'art-thérapie, de l'enregistrement audio des séances, et de l'observation directe. Celles-ci sont analysées en fonction de la notion d'espace sacré, telle qu'énoncée par des sources en anthropologie, en études religieuses, en histoire de l'art, et en psychologie. Les résultats indiquent que les participantes sont parvenues à accéder à un espace sacré, et que dans cet espace il est possible de vivre une reconnaissance symbolique menant à l'acquisition d'un sentiment de pouvoir personnel. Cependant, le faible taux de participation à cette recherche porte à penser que l'espace sacré représente peut-être à la fois ce que ces femmes incarcérées désirent et ce dont elles ont peur, c'est-à-dire le retour à un état de symbiose. Vu le nombre restreint de femmes qui se sont prêtées à l'exploration de ce thème, il apparaît qu'une approche non-directive conviendrait peut-être mieux à l'ensemble de la population incarcérée. Dans une étude future, des références aux théories de Kernberg et de Kohut au sujet de la symbiose-séparation au stade de l'acquisition de l'autonomie chez l'enfant enrichiraient l'interprétation des données de recherche.
Desormeaux, Danielle 1999
Women, anger and health: Art therapy in the context of a feminist perspective
This research explores the relationship between patterns of anger expression and health for women. A feminist approach is proposed in art therapy with women who suffer with physical and mental health problems. This proposition is due to the demonstrated fact that women have a greater tendency to repress anger because of the socialization of emotional expression in the context of the sex-role acquisition and that a maladaptive pattern of anger expression can have negative effects on the physical and mental health of an individual. In order to help women learn new and more effective way of expressing their anger, an art therapeutic group intervention in a feminist perspective will be suggested and supported as an approach of choice to acknowledge, express, and give meaning to anger as well as to foster self-knowledge, self-empowerment and health. Through artistic expression in therapy, women can begin to recognize the social factors influencing their condition, mental as well as physical. The group process can foster a reconstruction of the female self, lift the feeling of isolation and give an opportunity for women to express themselves and thus find a voice which communicates dignity and self-respect.
Desormeaux, Danielle 2000
Images de la colère en art-thérapie - Analyse qualitative des images représentant la colère, effectuées par des femmes ayant tendance à réprimer ou à extérioriser cette émotion
Quatre femmes éprouvant des difficultés à gérer leur colère ont participé à cette étude qui vise à comparer les différences et les similitudes visuelles contenues dans les images représentant la colère effectuées, lors d'un atelier d'art-thérapie, par deux groupes de femmes: celles qui ont tendance à réprimer l'expression de leur colère et celles qui l'extériorisent de façon improductive. Les participantes ont complété le questionnaire STAXI, ce qui a permis de déterminer que deux d'entre elles ont tendance à réprimer leur colère (Anger-In), que deux autres ont tendance à l'extérioriser inadéquatement (Anger-Out) et que trois participantes possèdent un tempérament colérique (Trait-Anger). Les participantes ont aussi répondu à un questionnaire concernant leur état de santé général. Un lien a pu être établit entre le fait de réprimer sa colère et l'expérience d'états dépressifs. Des différences et des similitudes dans la nature des lignes, des formes, de l'espace, de la syntaxe visuelle, des couleurs et du contenu manifeste ont été observées en fonction du mode d'expression de la colère de chaque participante, de son tempérament et de son état de santé. La majorité des différences s'observent quand les participantes sont regroupées par tempérament. La participante en bonne santé est celle pour qui les images sont le plus souvent associées à des expériences positives. Certaines images produites par les participantes éprouvant des problèmes de santé font référence directement à des parties du corps. Enfin, cette étude a permis de définir les particularités des pastels à l'huile, de la gouache et de l'argile comme matériaux pour l'expression de la colère.
Desormeaux, Danielle 2000
Images of anger - Qualitative comparison between anger imagery produced by women who have a tendency to repress anger and by women who tend to express it ineffectively
Four women having problems with the healthy expression of anger volunteered to participate in this project which is a qualitative comparison of the visual elements of images representing anger done in an art therapy workshop by two groups: women who have a tendency to repress this emotion and women who tend to express it ineffectively. The STAXI was completed by the participants and the results showed that two of them have a tendency to repress anger (Anger-In), that two tend to express this emotion ineffectively (Anger-Out) and that three participants have a natural tendency to experience anger frequently and intensely (Trait-Anger). The participants filed out a questionnaire about the state of their health. A relationship was observed between anger repression and depressed moods. Differences and similarities in the nature of lines, shapes, space, visual syntax, colors and manifest content were observed in relationship to the mode of anger expression of each participant, her temperament and the state of her health. The main differences are observed when the participants are grouped according to temperament (Trait-Anger). The healthiest participant is also the one who associated anger with positive experiences in her images. Some of the images produced by the participants having health problems often referred directly to body parts. This study can also define the characteristic of oil pastel, poster paint and clay a medium for the expression of anger.
Desrochers, Bernard 1991
Expression et traitement en art thérapie d'enfants abusés physiquement
L'art thérapie sera étudié partant d'un travail avec une population d'enfants abusés physiquement. L'abus physique sera physique sera examiné en fonction du développement pathologique de 1'image du corps, représentant la rupture de 1a relation d'attachement mutuel tel que décrite par Bowlby. Une recherche clinique a court terme avec trois sujets illustrera comment l'art thérapie facilite 1'expression et la 1'expression et la construction d'une image du corps plus complète et intègre, menant à une relation d'objet réciproque et autonome. L'art sera propose comme métaphore pour projeter 1'image du corps sur un objet extérieur. Cette distance émotive facilitera un travail thérapeutique face au traumatisme imprégné dans cette image. En créant cet objet art, 1'enfant contribuera à la naissance d'une nouvelle image de soi, facilitant l'établissement de nouvelles relations. Le thérapeute favoriserait une approche par la métaphore plutôt que l'interprétation du contenu non verbal. Une description théorique et clinique de la relation thérapeutique permettra d'exposer et de comprendre les réactions de transfert et de contre-transfert.
Devost, Odette 1995
La créativité comme outil thérapeutique au traitement de la dépression en art-thérapie
L'art thérapie s'est érigée à la croisée de deux chemins: l'art et la psychologie. S'approchant de ses racines artistiques plusieurs art thérapeutes accordent des vertus au processus créateur et fondent au sein de ses actions leurs agissements thérapeutiques. Cette appartenance avouée, le praticien concède des signes distinctifs à l'acte créateur selon le cadre théorique adopté. À l'intérieur des diverses routes possibles, soit la psychanalyse, la psychologie humaniste et les théories cognitives, sont mises en lumière des facettes différentes de la personnalité activées par le phénomène créatif.
S'appuyant sur ces hypothèses, nous cherchons une voie à la dépression pour affronter sa perte, sa désespérance et ses problèmes cognitifs. Nous regardons la créativité comme un outil thérapeutique pouvant offrir, en son exercice, un trajet possible à l'individu dépressif afin de construire un éventail de réponses et de soulager sa douleur face à la perte.
Par la suite, nous tentons d'énoncer, à partir des propriétés de la créativité, un plan thérapeutique pour traiter les personnes dépressives en art thérapie. Considérant l'alliance thérapeutique et la créativité, nous présentons une étude de cas qui propose des applications aux concepts énoncés. Bien entendu, malgré la diversité des explications, demeure le phénomène: la créativité. La thérapie s'activant à lui donner une place, elle octroie à la personne une façon de recréer son monde, la libère et lui remet son pouvoir.
Dion, Danielle 1994
Utilisation de certains aspects des théories de Melanie Klein pour l'exploration des conflits psychologiques révélés dans les dessins d'une cliente borderline
Ce mémoire constitue une exploration du trouble de la personnalité borderline dans une perspective Kleinienne et à (aide d'une étude de cas en art thérapie. II y est développé et démontré une hypothèse à l'effet que I'on puisse observer, à travers ses dessins, que la cliente oscille constamment entre la position paranoïde schizoïde et la position dépressive, décrites par Melanie Klein, sans jamais pouvoir perlaborer la position dépressive. Le premier chapitre trace un portrait historique et clinique du trouble de personnalité borderline pour le mettre ensuite en rapport avec les théories de Melanie Klein. L'attention est ensuite portée sur l'utilisation de l'art thérapie en tant qu'outil d'exploration des conflits psychologiques et sur son apport spécifique comme mode d'intervention psychothérapeutique auprès des borderlines. Finalement, le dernier chapitre est entièrement consacré à l'étude de cas présentant une art thérapie conduite auprès d'une cliente borderline. L'utilisation de I'art-thérapie combinée à la perspective Kleinienne tente de proposer une approche différente qui puisse offrir de nouvelles avenues pour supporter ces personnes le plus adéquatement possible.
Dionne, Marie-Pascale 2007
Following Children after Relocation: An Art Therapist's Guide
The following research summarizes issues pertaining to relocated school aged children, and suggests a range of art therapeutic tools to support their adaptation process, whether it is a cross-cultural relocation or not. The present guide is the result of a combination of some of the history-documentary methodologies, and an investigation of previous and current art therapy programs serving different relocated child populations throughout Montreal. Suggested art therapeutic activities are presented accordingly to the weaving of theoretical concepts of the grieving process stages, and the cross-cultural adaptation stages.
The guide is divided into three parts: the arrival, settling down, and moving on. Each part begins with some psychoeducational information about the emotional state a relocated child may be going through, at the given time. The guide is conceived to respond to individual art therapy sessions, as well as group art therapy sessions. For each part, therapeutic activities are suggested, which can be selected according to the child's best interest. Each activity includes a list of material, procedures, explanation of its therapeutic implication, warm-ups, and finally, an alternative version for group format adaptation. Outcome research would be the next step to achieve in order to consolidate this guide's effectiveness.
Dolce, Sylvia 1999
The Use of Interactive Guided Imagery in an Art Therapy Process with Individuals
Affected by Psychosomatic Disturbances
This case study observes the influence of mental imagery on an art therapy process with psychosomatic patients and is based on the assumption that combining interactive guided imagery with art therapy can enhance symbolic functions in psychosomatic patients. First, basic psychodynamic concepts of the somatization process are reviewed, my assumptions on how the art therapy/mental imagery process can benefit psychosomatic patients are presented and the method of interactive guided imagery is explained. In the clinical presentation, the process of two women affected by psychosomatic disturbances is observed. Their art therapy process before and after the integration of interactive guided imagery in their sessions is presented and their art work before and after the combined art/mental imagery process is compared, stimulating questions and reflections on this approach. Though this case study does not provide conclusions from which generalizations can be drawn, it does demonstrate that using interactive guided imagery in an art therapy process with the two research subjects appears to have had an impact on their symbolic process.
Doyle, Christine 1999
Three Models of Spiritually Informed Approaches to Art therapy Based Upon Archetypal Psychology, Existentialism, and Developmental Theory
* No abstract
Doyle, Christine 2001
Spirituality and Art Therapy
This paper reports the findings of a heuristic inquiry into the relationship between spirituality and art therapy. The data presented in this research paper have been gathered from three primary sources, including appropriate literary works, personal material from the autyhor's immersion in her own experience of spirituality and art therapy, and, thirdly, the words and images shared by four art therapists, as well as the author, in response to the question, "how have you encountered spirituality in art therapy?" The findings indicate that, in keeping with the longtime secularization of the mental health system, the art therapy community is hesitating to introduce explicit spiritual discourse into its training and practice. Nevertheless the findings suggest that explicit spiritual discourse is possible and worthwhile, at least amongst art therapists on a one-to-one basis. An argument is made that spiritual discourse can play an important role in facilitating the spiritual healing and growth of art therapy clients, particularly as it serves a meaning making function. The art therapy community is encouraged to continue making space for spiritual discourse, particularly as a self-reflective process, with the ultimate intention of better serving clients.
Drapeau, Marie-Céline 1998
Psychothérapie par l'art et jeux scéniques des marionnettes ou Comment peut-on utiliser la marionnette à des fins thérapeutiques?
Le sujet qui est développé dans la présente recherche bibliographique vise à brosser un tableau de l'utilisation de la marionnette en thérapie. Néanmoins, afin d'introduire d'une façon plus générale le jeu avec les marionnettes en soi et avant d'aborder ce media et ses implications thérapeutiques, nous tracerons brièvement un portrait du jeu chez les enfants en tant que langage symbolique. Nous verrons donc au chapitre premier un survol de ce qu'est le jeu, ce qui le favorise, ce qu'il peut représenter et ce à quoi il nous donne accès.
Nous poursuivrons l'étude du jeu qui utilise les marionnettes et explorerons, tout au long de cette recherche, comment et pourquoi en psychothérapie ces petits personnages animés qui pleurent, rient, expriment leur colère et parfois meurent et ressuscitent, nous révèlent si aisément la vie intérieure de celui qui leur insuffle la vie. Les marionnettes créent elles un sentiment de sécurité qui favorise l'émergence d'une réalité que le sujet désire cacher ou qui lui est inconsciente ? Chaque scénario de vie élaboré à l'aide de ces marionnettes est il le reflet de celui du marionnettiste qui les anime ? Quelle est la valeur thérapeutique du jeu avec les marionnettes ?
Après avoir étudié certaines caractéristiques et spécificités des marionnettes en psychothérapie, nous mettrons en lumière, à l'aide notamment d'exemples, l'apport de trois auteurs qui ont utilisé les marionnettes dans leur travail avec les enfants.
Nous décrirons de façon concrète au chapitre suivant le matériel devant préférablement être mis à la disposition de l'enfant et les raisons justifiant un tel choix. Notre dernier chapitre traite de l'utilisation de la marionnette à des fins d'évaluation et de diagnostic. Nous y décrirons une technique d'entrevue qui permet de mettre en relief l'étude du contenu et de la forme des jeux scéniques des marionnettes.
Enfin, nous conclurons par un portrait global de l'étude de cette recherche bibliographique.
Drapeau, Marie Céline 2001
Motus et bouche cousue: Ētude clinique d'un cas de mutisme sélectif suivi en art thérapie
Ce travail de recherche propose l'étude de cas d'un enfant atteint de mutisme sélectif. Le mutisme sélectif est perçu comme un symptôme clinique. Pourquoi un enfant ne parle-t-il pas dans certaines situations sociales alors que dans d'autres, il s'exprime aisément par la parole, lorsque cette incapacité de parler n'est due ni à un défaut de connaissance de la langue parlée ni à un autre trouble défini dans le DSM IV ? Quel est la dynamique psychique a l'oeuvre ? Cette étude de cas a pour objet de démontrer comment, en favorisant l'expression symbolique par la création picturale et le jeu avec les marionnettes, l'art thérapie a permis à un enfant de retrouver la parole. La présente recherche illustre également comment la théorie kleinienne a permis de "faire sens" de la complexité de la réalité psychique de ce jeune patient atteint de mutisme sélectif.
Dray, Patricia 2000
An Evaluation of Individual Drama Therapy in the Treatment of Suicidal Adolescents
Adolescents contemplating or attempting suicide are a widespread problem in today's society. Suicidal adolescents represent a uniquely challenging clinical population due to the combination of psychiatric, sociocultural and developmental factors. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of individual drama therapy with three suicidal adolescents, by means of a mixed method approach, combining a quantitative and qualitative research methodology. The quantitative component, accomplished by means of a quasi experimental pre post research design, will objectively demonstrate the efficacy of drama therapy treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated with respect to suicidality, level of functioning, presence of depression and self esteem. The qualitative component describes the drama therapy process by means of case studies. The results demonstrate that drama therapy achieved substantial improvement in level of functioning and suicidality for all three adolescents, as well as clinically meaningful gains in the domains of depression and self esteem for most. This study provides evidence that drama therapy creates a non threatening, empathic environment that enables the suicidal adolescent to express his/her feelings in safety, permit exploration of self and others, and practice alternative coping skills.
Patricia Dray 2001
Drama Therapy as a Viable Option in a Multimodal Approach in the Treatment of Suicidal Adolescents
Adolescents contemplating or attempting suicide are a widespread problem in today's society. Adolescent suicidal behavior is the result of a combination of psychiatric, sociocultural and developmental factors. Variables such as depression, substance abuse, disruptive disorders, poor social adjustment, school problems, family difficulties and stressful life events may be involved. The more risk factors present, the more at risk an adolescent may be for suicidal behavior. As research indicates the requirement of a flexible and multimodal approach in the treatment of suicidal adolescents, this paper demonstrates that drama therapy may be a viable option worthy of consideration in treating teen suicidal behavior. Prevalence and incidence of suicidal behavior among adolescents in Quebec and Canada are examined as well as the risk factors involved. An overview of the current use of psychotherapy and drama therapy in treatment is presented, exploring the link between both modalities with respect to goals, strategies and expected outcomes of treatment. It is demonstrated that drama therapy uniquely combines the therapeutic attributes of psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Drama therapy creates a non threatening, empathic environment that provides the adolescent with safe ways to express his/her feelings, permit exploration of self and others, and practice alternative coping skills.
Drouin, Louise 1986
A Descriptive Study of Women Using Video to Explore Self image
This thesis describes four video workshops during which I worked as facilitator with four women. The aim was to explore self image through masks, objects, and gestures. After each workshop, problematic issues were identified. The main questions that recurred involved the nature of conflict for women. The discussion of these questions is organized into sections and discussed in relation to the literature about the socialization of women and women and art.
Dubé, Louise 1993
Intégration du jeu à l'art thérapie
L'objectif de ce mémoire est avant tout de mettre en lumière comment le jeu peut s'intégrer de façon bénéfique à la pratique de l'art thérapie, c'est à dire d'explorer comment la capacité à jouer d'un individu peut l'amener à se développer personnellement dans le contexte de l'art thérapie. Dans la poursuite de cet objectif, l'art et le jeu ont d'abord été situés dans une conception plus générale de la créativité, puis définie en fonction de leur spécificité propre et enfin mise en parallèle afin de mieux saisir leurs similitudes et différences ainsi que les liens existant entre eux.
À l'aide d'une étude de cas ou le jeu a été intégré à la thérapie par l'art, j'illustre comment la dimension jeu en art thérapie peut être bénéfique tant au plan de la création artistique que de la qualité de la relation thérapeutique et de la poursuite des objectifs thérapeutiques. L'art thérapie est perçue comme un endroit privilégié ou l'individu, aussi bien l'enfant que l'adulte, est appelé à se laisser aller à sa fantaisie créatrice et a son imagination sans l'obligation d'être performant et compétitif. Le jeu spontané y a une place de premier choix car il permet une ouverture à de nouveaux modes d'expression et facilite l'accès au monde des images et des symboles.
Ducharme, Doris 1991
Approche de l'art thérapie par les processus d'individualisation et de création. "Chagall l'imagier"
Cette recherche se situe dans le cadre de la psychologie jungienne et dans le "monde" de Chagall, qui se rejoignent dans celui de la création venant de cet espace conscient inconscient qui permet la formation de symboles. Dans une sortie du monde de la mère où les archétypes en arrivent à tous se ressembler, nous tenterons de distinguer la nature des images dans la psychologie et dans l'art, ainsi que les processus qui les sous tendent pour en arriver à ce que pourrait être l'art thérapie. Comme l'image est le mode d'expression naturel de l'inconscient, l'importance de la qualité du moi ou du conscient, est primordiale dans la création et la compréhension de ces images ainsi que dans l'integration de leurs contenus dans la vie de tous les jours. Dans cette démarche de mise en forme et de recherche de sens, il nous faudra toujours reconnaître deux valeurs, le rationnel et l'irrationnel, valeurs vivantes que nous ne pourrons jamais posséder.
Dufour, Marianne 1999
The Corrective Art Image: A Symbolic Transformation of Reality through Imagination
The purpose of this research is to bring into focus the technique of having clients symbolically solve a real life situation through an art image ("corrective art image"). 2 experimental realities are articulated around the physicality of the art image: the making of an inner reality into an outer reality, and the re introjection of a new outer reality into inner reality. The manipulation of mental images contributes to an expansion of the view of self that art making can facilitate and consecrate in an object that symbolically makes the fantasy a reality. The physicality of the image and its perpetuating effect through time can significantly contribute to the introjection and imprinting of these new views upon the psyche. Therefore, combining the potential for cognitive and affective impact of fantasy making and of art making can have tremendously powerful results. Accounts of how corrective art images are used by art therapists were found in various case studies and are classified into 4 types related to the primary function of corrective image making and the type of therapeutic intervention that fostered it. At the term of this research, it is apparent that there exist various types of corrective art images that serve different purposes during the therapeutic process. Therapists can facilitate the use of corrective art work by clients through content specific instructions (modeling or active guiding), or by giving a general instruction to respond in a corrective fashion (empowering). However, the images which appear to have the most corrective impact are those where the therapists refrain from giving content specific instructions. This suggests that resolution is a matter of experience. The therapist may facilitate experience but has no control over whether a corrective "sublimation" occurs or not.
Dufour, Marianne 2000
Through the looking glass: the therapeutic potential of videotaping as an adjunct tool in non directive art therapy in an object relations perspective
The purpose of this research is to discuss the therapeutic potential of videotaping in non directive art therapy. The usage of the camera was unusual in that the children exercised complete control over if, when, what and how to film the session. Secondly, videotaping was used within the context of art therapy sessions, the purpose being neither to document neutrally nor to record a performance, although both were simultaneously presupposed. Thirdly, contrary to the most common forms of therapeutic usage of video technology, filmed material was seldom played back. The influence of videotaping conducted as described above is examined in two domains: 1) the nature and boundaries of the transitional space (Winnicott, 1971) in which expression can take place; and 2) the client's relationship with transitional objects, i.e.: the therapist and the camera.
My hypothesis is that the camera elicited transferences that found roots in the manner in which the subject's mother (or main caregiver) mirrored and shaped the subjects' core senses of Self during early infancy. I believe that the capacity of the camera to elicit feelings of being "recognized" for what one truly is played an important role in modifying historical conceptions of the nature of their true selves. The camera's inherent capacity to create a space simultaneously real and illusionary facilitated the clients' investment into deep transference dynamics and the playing out of therapeutic processes.
Durst, Adrienne 1998
Art Therapy and Pedophilia: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects in the Treatment of Pedophilia
The subject of this research paper is pedophilia and the treatment possibilities for those who commit these sexual offenses. The first phase of this exploratory study consists of a literature review of some theories on the etiology of pedophilia and their respective clinical treatment objectives. In the second phase of this paper, a literature review of research conducted on the application of art therapy will be explored for the treatment of this population.
It is not suggested that art therapy may be more successful over other psychotherapeutic treatments, but rather that it be used in conjunction with the traditional treatments, thereby stimulating more data in this field and creating a better understanding of the dynamics of the perpetrator. Such understanding may provide us with research tools which, in turn, may lead to more effective treatment of those who molest children (Naitove, 1988). Questions to be explored in this paper are, how can art therapy work in conjunction with the more traditional treatment modalities? What are the unique benefits in using art therapy with this population? Are the objectives of art therapy different from or similar to current psychotherapeutic treatment plans for sex offenders?
This research paper strives to serve as a foundation for art therapists and other professionals who require theoretical and practical understanding in this area.
Durst, Adrienne 1999
Art Therapy: Three Models of Community Based Mental Health Facilities
The deinstitutionalization movement has affected art therapy, along with the entire mental health care system in Canada. The shift from hospital based care to community based care for psychiatric patients has resulted in a subsequent expansion of community services to meet the needs of this population. The expansion of art therapy into the community is an inevitable outgrowth of deinstitutionalization. This research paper examines how art therapy has been integrated into community based mental health facilities after de institutionalization. What role does art therapy play in the community and how has it been implemented? This primary question is explored through the assessment of three different community based mental health facilities within the Montreal area. Through interviews with the art therapists from these three community based mental health facilities, an illustration of how art therapy has been implemented is portrayed. This research paper explores the complex and challenging set of problems created for the mental health care system as formally institutionalized patients are dispersed into the community and the unique challenges that art therapists face within the deinstitutionalized setting.
Elmaleh, Shlomo 2000
Photographic Self Confrontation as a Process of Growth
Phototherapy, as a non verbal creative modality, uses the client's full visual power to face his/her own image. Phototherapy is an excellent test of reality and the use of visual self confrontation comes to show the client's individuality and unique value when working with the self image self concept and self esteem issues. The assumption of photographic self confrontation is that the clients will not, or can not, confront themselves and it is up to the therapist to confront the client's behavior and fantasies, thus forcing him/her to compare it with the real action. This paper explores the subject of phototherapy which is the use of photographic materials in therapy. The paper has a brief literature review of the history of phototherapy and the different techniques and uses within phototherapy. The body of the paper explores the facilitation of growth through the use of photographic self confrontation with adolescents and demonstrates different approaches and theories regarding this technique. The last chapter of this paper focuses on a critical review of a case study that will demonstrate some of the strength and weaknesses of the use of phototherapy and photographic self confrontation.
Elmaleh, Shlomo 2000
Phototherapy as an adjunct to Art Therapy with a female adolescent in the school setting
This qualitative research paper demonstrates, with the help of a case study and the H.T.P assessment, how art therapy and phototherapy help facilitate personal growth with a female adolescent in an alternative high school in Quebec. It demonstrates the use of photography as a specialized form to address clients' concerns as well as a catalyst for verbal and expressive therapy with adolescents in a school setting. The paper also examines the methods that have been used in the past in the treatment with "normal" adolescents and review the use of art and phototherapy in the school setting. The paper explores the role of the art therapist in the school setting and the changes in the education system that brought for the introduction of art therapy treatment with normal adolescents. It brings my personal experience with establishing an art/photo therapy program in a high school and explores the variables, including the difficulties and limitations, around this experience.
Emond, Marie-Hélène 2008
The Experience of the Creation of Visual Responses in Relation to Counter-transference after Meeting with Clients during a First-year Art Therapy Practicum.
The main goal of the research is to discover how my personal artistic production can help me to better understand my reactions, interventions, and impressions of clients and to keep their well being at the center of my practice. The present research is heuristic, which means that it focuses on the researcher's personal experience of a phenomenon. The project took place during the course of an academic year, from September to April. After art therapy sessions with groups and with individual clients, I created artistic responses related to these meetings. These visual responses were created as a means of reflecting on events, interventions, and personal impressions that took place during the sessions. Later, I analyzed the possible connections of those images and counter-transference. As art therapists, we are the first tool of our trade, which makes it essential to analyze our emotional reactions, striving to restrain ourselves from acting impulsively to the detriment of our client.
Emond, Marie-Hélène 2008
L'expérience de la création de réponses visuelles en lien avec le contre-transfert suite aux rencontres avec les clients lors d'un premier stage d'art-thérapie.
Le but de ma recherche est de découvrir comment ma production artistique personnelle peut m'aider à mieux comprendre mes réactions, interventions et impressions vis-à-vis de mes clients et ainsi mieux favoriser leur bien-être. La recherche est heuristique, c'est-à-dire qu'elle se concentre sur l'expérience personnelle du phénomène tel que vécu par le chercheur. Le projet s'est déroulé pendant une année académique universitaire, soit de septembre à avril. À la suite de rencontres d'art-thérapie de groupe ou individuelle, j'ai réalisé des créations artistiques en réponse à celles-ci. Ces réponses visuelles ont été créées en réaction aux événements qui se sont produits pendant les sessions ainsi qu'en réaction à mes interventions et impressions personnelles. Par la suite, je me suis interrogée sur le lien entre ces images et le contre-transfert. Comme art-thérapeute, nous sommes notre premier outil de travail, il s'avère donc essentiel de chercher à bien analyser nos réactions émotives afin d'éviter d'agir impulsivement au détriment du bien-être du client.
Evoy, Ann 1984
A Woman's Journey Into Herself Through Imagery
This thesis was conceived during a personal transformation period in my life. This transformation period was awareness for the first time of listening to the wisdom of the internal feminine within my unconscious. This awareness surfaced in the imagery of the drawings included as well as in dreams.
I became acquainted with the 'Terrible Mother', the 'Good Mother' and the masculine part of myself. I attempted to understand their origins from a personal and a theoretical point of view.
The experience has been personally enriching and I also appreciate the struggle of people who are trying to achieve wholeness and harmony within themselves.
Eykel, Marie 2004
Développer et renforcer la résilience d'un garçon victime d'inceste par la dramathérapie
This paper reports on a therapist's progress working with a child incest victim over 17 sessions using developmental methods of dramatherapy (sue Jennings and Ann Cattanach) and E.P.R. (embodiment, projection and role). The case explores the nine year old boy's progress, as therapist and child interact in a unique therapeutic alliance embodying a continuing story inspired by the child's imaginary world. This study builds a convincing case supporting dramatherapy as a healing method to help restore resilience in children who have been victims of incest or sexual abuse.
The concept of resilience is relatively new. I have tried to present the most recent litterature review on the subject. I also gave a special attention to the repercusssions of incest on boys, this aspect of the problem being rarely tackled. Finaly, before concluding, I looked at the therapeutic alliance in the unique and special perspective of dramatherapy.
Eykel, Marie 2004
Développer et renforcer la résilience d'un garçon victime d'inceste par la dramathérapie
Le but de ma recherche est d'observer et de noter les effets de la dramathérapie sur la résilience d'un garçon de neuf ans victime d'inceste. Mes observations se font à partir d'une étude de cas unique. Au cours des 17 rencontres que j'ai eues avec Pascal (prénom fictif), j'ai utilisé l'approche développementale créée et expérimentée par Sue Jennings et Ann Cattanach. Incarnations, projections et rôles ont été explorés simultanément à l'intérieur d'un long récit imaginé par Pascal. C'est à l'intérieur même du processus de création dramatique que j'ai pu voir sa résilience s'épanouir, comme j'ai pu observer les failles et les blocages qui le limitent dans son développement.
Le concept de résilience étant relativement récent, j'ai tenté de présenter une revue de la littérature la plus actuelle sur le sujet. J'ai aussi porté une attention particulière aux répercussions de l'inceste sur les garçons, cet aspect du problème étant rarement étudié. Finalement, avant de conclure, j'ai abordé l'alliance thérapeutique sous l'angle unique et particulier de la dramathérapie.
Fabien, Isabelle 1990
L'environnement culturel et social de quatre étudiantes en arts visuels au niveau collégial: une approche exploratoire
Inspirée des notions de démocratie, de pluralisme culturel et de la perspective féministe en éducation, cette recherche a pour but principal d'explorer le contexte culturel, social et psychologique de quatre étudiantes. Des entrevues individuelles "ouvertes", ayant comme point de départ des objets ou images se trouvant a l'intérieur de leur espace de vie privée, ont donné lieu a une analyse comportant trois volets. Le premier traite du rapport entretenu avec les objets et l'espace, le deuxième de la dimension psychologique, culturelle et sociale et le troisième de concepts et expression artistiques. Chaque volet de l'analyse est précédé d'une présentation théorique. En conclusion, certaines implications concernant l'enseignement de l'art sont soulevées.
Folz, Jon Egon 1997
Art Therapy: Meeting the Needs of Students in the Schools
Strategies for Implementing an Art Therapy Program at the Elementary School Level in Montreal
This paper presents an overview of the current concerns facing school systems today and explores how art therapy can be applied within the regular school system to address these issues. The paper offers a specific focus on the Montreal School System, however, many of the issues presented have a wider application and attend to similar concerns addressed by school systems in Canada and the United States. Several reports have noted an increase in behaviour problems in the schools, high stress being shouldered by younger and younger children, problems in academic achievement, and an overall increase in the number of children failing to succeed in the school environment. As schools struggle to meet the challenge of anticipating, responding, and supporting the needs and concerns of society, new policies and directions are continually being sought out. Art therapy has been applied in several cases and has demonstrated a variety of useful applications. The author will outline how art and creativity relate to development and how art therapy is especially well suited for work with children in the school setting. The three categories of Therapeutic Art Educator, Art Therapy Consultant, and Clinical Art Therapist are presented as potential applications of art therapy in the schools and their distinct roles and levels of effectiveness are discussed by the author. In conjunction with the current body of literature, case examples are offered and information gathered from three professionals working with children in Montreal is used to provide both a current and uniquely Canadian point of view. It is the hope of the author that this paper will encourage further thought on this subject and stimulate interest in the school community regarding the potential of implementing future art therapy programs in the schools.
Forest, Melanie, 2006
Children who bully: A school-based intervention using cognitive-behavioural art therapy
The following theoretical and clinical investigation explores the therapeutic potentialities of a cognitive-behavioural art therapeutic intervention and treatment within an elementary school with a child who shows bullying behaviours towards his peers. Bullying has become a serious problem found within schools and therefore, has led many schools to start implementing intervention programs to address these problems. Ma (2001) noted that there is a strong relationship between bullying in the school and future violence in the community. Consequently, if bullying is a common problem in elementary schools, it should not be overlooked on the belief that children will grow out of it. Therefore, early assessments and interventions into the bullying cycle may help prevent the development of antisocial behaviours in children who bully and potentially reduce the emotional trauma associated with being a victim.
The purpose of the present study was to show how using a cognitive-behavioural based art-therapy approach can help a young boy who had been identified as a school bully, to understand the nature of his bullying behaviour, identify his maladaptive assumptions and eventually evaluate and modify his thinking strategies. Given that cognitive-behavioural therapy is an approach that involves collaboration between client and therapist, the student was involved in tracking, verbalizing and recording negative thoughts through both mental and visual imagery by allowing the student to input and design creative activities to support and enhance behavioural change.
Forget, Francine 1999
L'art-thérapie au service du troisième âge: pour le développement d'une pratique à domicile auprès des personnes âgées présentant des symptômes dépressifs
L'accès à des services d'art-thérapie à domicile contribuerait à prévenir et à soulager les problèmes de santé mentale rencontrés par les personnes âgées. Le but de la présente recherche est de démontrer la pertinence de développer des services art thérapeutiques auprès des personnes âgées résidant à domicile. La dépression chez les personnes âgées est sous diagnostiquée et sous-traitée, l'accès à des services psychothérapeutiques est rare et, dans plusieurs cas, inexistant. L'art-thérapie doit s'inscrire dans la gamme des services offerts à domicile afin de fournir à la personne âgée dépressive en perte d'autonomie un support psychologique adapté à son vieillissement. Cette recherche étudie certains paramètres de l'intervention gériatrique et, plus particulièrement, la santé mentale, sa spécificité et son incidence parmi les personnes âgées. Le vieillissement, ses caractéristiques ainsi que la dépression et sa symptomatologie sont également considérés. Les effets de l'art-thérapie dans différents milieux de vie de la personne âgée font aussi l'objet d'une attention particulière. Cette recherche vise à situer les enjeux théoriques de l'intervention auprès des personnes âgées dépressives en perte d'autonomie et à démontrer la nécessité qu'une application directe par l'art-thérapie soit actualisée à domicile.
Forget, Francine 2003
La pratique de l'art-thérapie à domicile auprès des personnes âgées, une étude pilote de faisabilité
L'objectif principal de cette recherche est de démontrer la faisabilité de la pratique de l'art-thérapie auprès des personnes âgées résidant à domicile et d'explorer ses effets sur les symptômes de la dépression. La présente recherche s'est déroulée dans le cadre d'un stage de maîtrise en art-thérapie, réalisé de septembre 2000 à mai 2001, dans une clinique de psycho gériatrie d'un hôpital francophone de Montréal. II s'agit d'une étude pilote comprenant quatre volets: (1) les aspects pragmatiques de la pratique de l'art-thérapie à domicile auprès des personnes âgées ; (2) l'étude exploratoire des effets de l'art-thérapie sur l'incidence des symptômes dépressifs évalués à partir de l'échelle de dépression de Beck (1961) ; (3) l'analyse des images produites par les clients à partir d'une grille d'observation inspirée du Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (Gantt, 1998") ; (4) la présentation d'études de cas (vignettes cliniques) de personnes âgées ayant bénéficié d'une intervention art thérapeutique à domicile dans le cadre du stage. Cette recherche, à laquelle quatre sujets ont participé, utilise une méthodologie mixte d'investigation (quantitative et qualitative). Bien que l'analyse des résultats ne puisse être généralisée, cette étude indique que l'art-thérapie à domicile est une pratique faisable qui pourrait agir positivement sur les symptômes de la dépression chez des personnes âgées.
Forget, Francine 2003
The practice of home bound art-therapy with the elderly A pilot study of feasibility
The main goal of this research is to demonstrate that home bound art-therapy with the elderly is feasible, and to explore the effect of its practice on the symptoms of depression. This research was conducted during the course of a Master's degree practicum in a psychogeriatric clinic of a French hospital in Montreal. This pilot study explore four main aspects: (1) the pragmatic dimension of the home bound art-therapy practice ; (2) the exploratory study of the effects of art-therapy on the incidence of depressive symptoms, according to Beck's (1961) Depression Scale ; (3) the analysis of the graphic elements of the image based on an observation scale inspired from the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (Gantt, 1998) and finally ; (4) the presentation of case studies (clinical case) of elderly people that have benefited from individual in home art-therapy sessions during the practicum. Four subjects participated in this study, which used a mix-method investigation (qualitative and quantitative). Although the results cannot be generalised, this study tend to indicate that home bound art-therapy is a feasible practice that could positively affect the depressive symptoms of the elderly.
Foster, Emily Wickwire 2001
Mother and Child Art Therapy Using Instant Photography: A case study of a mother and child redefining their relationship and themselves.
This study is an exploration of the use of instant photography with a dyadic (paired) art therapy treatment of a single mother and her pre latency female child. This study is not meant as a census of the dynamic and growing field of paired mother and child therapies. Emphasis is placed upon the process and the results of including photography within therapy sessions. The historical use of photography within therapy, and the discipline of phototherapy are described as they relate to Erikson's Developmental stages, and Object Relations theory as defined by Winnicott, and Klein (Erikson, 1950, Winnicott, 1971, Mitchell & Black, 1995). The works of Selma Fraiberg (1975) and Maude Mannoni (1970) regarding the treatment of mothers and children serve as guiding constructs for the case study. Melanie Klein's theories (Mitchell & Black, 1995) are incorporated with regard to the mother's bulimic tendencies, and the daughter's developmental stages. The results of the use of instant photographic work within art therapy sessions are described with examples. A case summary and conclusion with respect to the therapeutic progress of the dyad and the perceived influence of instant photography are included. However, because of the exploratory nature of the use of instant photography with mother and child art therapy, the conclusions relate specifically to the case study dyad. Finally, future implications of photography within therapy are discussed with relation to specific aspects for future study.
Foster, Martha 1989
A Historical Overview of Art Therapy since the Advent of Deinstitutionalization
The subject of this thesis is the use of art therapy with chronically mentally ill individuals since the advent of deinstitutionalization. Deinstitutionalization, in this context, refers to a movement that promotes the shift from hospital based care to community based care of the chronically mentally ill.
Art therapy has been affected by the changes that deinstitutionalization has had on the mental health system. As a means of reviewing the evolution of this process, the thesis will define the concept of deinstitutionalization and examine the specific factors that led to its implementation. A broad historical overview of art therapy's origins and evolution in the United States, Britain and Canada will be presented charting deinstitutionalization's and art therapy's simultaneous shift from a traditional and established medical and psychiatric model of mental health care towards a more holistic and systemic approach to client treatment of the chronically mentally ill.
Art therapy's integration into a community based mental health center will be examined as a means of assessing the expectations and environmental considerations that practicing art therapists may encounter within a deinstitutionalized setting.
The thesis will conclude with personal impressions of art therapy's future role in the treatment of the chronically mentally ill with special emphasis placed on the role that fantasy and reality play in a deinstitutionalized, psycho/social model of community mental health.
Fox, Alison 1999
Art Therapy with People with Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome: A Literature Review
This paper serves as a literature review for a subsequent paper documenting my further research in the area of art therapy with people with illnesses which are difficult to diagnose and treat, such as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (ME/CFIDS).
The first chapter describes art therapy with medical populations. Achterberg's work on imagery and healing is discussed as a basis for art therapy, Dreifuss Katten's work with artists who have cancer is reviewed, Capacchione's promotion of dialogue with the body and the unconscious through writing and drawing with one's non dominant hand is suggested as a useful tool, and the potential for linking art therapy and activism is suggested. Special needs of people with CFIDS are addressed.
Factors related to the illness are reviewed in the second chapter, including diagnosis, possible etiology, treatment, debates within the medical community, stereotypes, the illness experience, and the role of sociocultural factors, personality factors and a history of abuse or being silenced.
The final chapter looks at ME/CFIDS with an eye for hope and healing, informed by the voices of women who have written of their experiences with ME/CFIDS. It begins with two models of the journey through ME/CFIDS, both by women who have moved through it, themselves. Body mind connections and transpersonal aspects of ME/CFIDS are described. Given that metaphor is a significant way that people speak about their illness experiences, and that the healthy speak about those who are ill, some cautionary words from Sontag on illness as metaphor are included. Finally, process oriented psychotherapy, which addresses all of these dimensions of illness, is described as a potentially effective approach to doing therapy with this population.
Fox, Alison 2000
Fibre Arts as Art Therapy Media: An Integrated Art Based Inquiry
Fibre arts were explored as potential art therapy media, through an art based methodology integrating heuristic, phenomenological and hermeneutic approaches to inquiry. The literature review established fibre art as a group of expressive practices with great symbolic potential in the areas of women's experience, culture, spirituality, relational processes, and metaphors for healing, transformation and the body. A personal artmaking exploration was undertaken which included papermaking, beadwork, collage and construction, drawing, and stitching by machine and by hand. Themes arising from this exploration were explored further, primarily in light of Winnicottian object relations theory, but also with reference to soul psychology, mythology, feminism and art history.
Freedman, Shoshana, 2006
Too many kings in the castle: Art therapy with a 7-year-old boy negotiating the Oedipal phase and other normative developmental tasks
This paper details the process of art therapy with a latency-aged boy experiencing mild to moderate adjustment difficulties and negotiating conflicts associated with the Oedipal complex. A discussion of Freud's Oedipus complex (as cited in Ellenberger, 1970) and associated theories is provided. The case study format, which includes descriptions of the client's sessions and artworks, is used to elucidate the use of art therapy in addressing developmental issues. The literature review explores potential links between Oedipal conflicts, object relations, and a related application of psychodynamic art therapy. While current literature emphasizes the use of art therapy with children facing more severe, pathological difficulties, it is contended that art therapy can provide an excellent means of addressing and supporting challenges and transitions associated with children's normative psychosexual development. It is proposed that the theoretical constructs, a Neo-Freudian approach, attachment theory, and object relations theory, may be used complimentarily to inform and enhance psychodynamic art therapy practice. Discussion of the client's therapeutic process focuses on his movement towards self-definition as he redefines his object world through creative expression and increased agency, facilitated by art therapy. His process points to the efficacy of a psychodynamic, developmentally oriented art therapy approach.
Fronk, Tabitha 1996
Threads of Commonality: Quilting Bees as Group Art Therapy for Women Trauma Survivors
This paper focuses on women's quilting bees, their history, and their potential as a more deliberately therapeutic modality. Within the frame of art therapy, and incorporating a feminist perspective, quilting bees could play a unique and valuable role in fulfilling the need for solidarity and healing among women, particularly among women trauma survivors. I argue that quilting bees are charged with rich symbolic meaning; for example as a metaphorical unifying force, and integration of fragmented selves, and individuals as fragments within a collective whole. My research draws from many fields, including: art history, feminist studies, anthropology and ethnography, psychology, and art therapy. Included is a proposal for future research and implementation of a qualitative or quantitative study.
Fronk, Tabitha 1998
Threads of Commonality: Quilting Bees as Group Art Therapy for Women Trauma Survivors
This paper is concerned with women's quilting bees, their history, and their potential as a more deliberately therapeutic modality. This research draws from various fields, including: art therapy, art history, feminist studies, heuristics and phenomenology, and psychology. Expanding upon my previous research, this paper presents the data collected from a qualitative pilot project conducted during February and March of 1997. The data consists of observations, narratives, questionnaires, and photographs of quilts made during the course of this quilting group. Included are suggestions for future research in this subject area.
Gaffney, Cindy 1999
The Use of Role in Dramatherapy for the Treatment of Two Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa
The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of role within dramatherapy as a treatment for two specific eating disorders: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The first task is to find a working definition of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Important to this definition are the influences in the patient's life that might help to contribute to the development of these eating disorders. The specific influences that will be focused on are: culture, media, control, self-esteem and body image, separation-individuation and family. Next, treatments that have been proven to be effective in the past will be explored. Then, the paper will explore the possible contributions of dramatherapy and in particular its use of role for treatment of eating disorders.
Gaffney, Cindy 2000
Where is the therapy in drama therapy when working with children with severely disruptive behavior?
There are two main themes discussed in this paper. The first is one drama therapy student's growth process over the course of her last academic year. The second theme deals with using drama therapy effectively with different populations and how she learned to adapt drama therapy best to suit her specific clientele of children with severely disruptive behavior. The paper explains how drama therapy can exist on a continuum which moves from drama being therapeutic in and of itself to clients being cognitively aware of the issues in their life which are causing them difficulty. There is an explanation of how goals were re-evaluated to better serve the specific population. In working with this group, there was a new understanding about how to approach therapy. Important themes were the use of boundaries and containment, play, planning, and acceptance and advocacy.
Gagnon, Joséphine 1999
Les effets psychologiques et thérapeutiques de la couleur en art-thérapie
Cette recherche est une exploration du phénomène de la couleur pour ses effets psychologique et curatif. L'étude permet de visiter le domaine de l'art-thérapie et d'y découvrir l'application que les experts font de la couleur. Ce phénomène naturel est analysé et décrit à travers différentes approches théoriques et techniques. Une définition scientifique de la manifestation de la couleur est offerte ainsi qu'une description des influences psychologiques et thérapeutiques qu'elle produit sur les êtres humains. Des méthodes curatives par la couleur ayant été élaborées par des art-thérapeutes afin d'aider les individus à atteindre une meilleure santé mentale sont également exposées. Une réflexion et une discussion suivent ces concepts. C'est à espérer que cette étude stimule une plus grande considération pour l'usage de la couleur et de ses effets dans le domaine de l'art-thérapie.
Gagnon, Joséphine 1999
Psychological and Curative Effects of Color in Art Therapy
This research is an exploration of the phenomenon of color for its psychological and curative effects. This study will investigate the field of art therapy and how its experts use color in therapy. This natural phenomenon will be described and analyzed using different theoretical and technical approaches. A scientific definition of how the color sensation is perceived, will be offered, as well as an examination .of the psychological and therapeutic influences of color on human beings. The extend to which some art therapists use color as an effective resource in their work to help individuals attain better mental health will be discussed. A reflection and discussion of these concepts will follow. It is hoped that this research will stimulate greater debate and consideration for the use of color and its effects in the field of art therapy.
Gagnon, Joséphine 2002
Programme de développement de l'intelligence émotionnelle par l'art-thérapie pour les préadolescents
Cette recherche propose l'élaboration d'un programme de développement de l'intelligence émotionnelle par l'art-thérapie auprès d'une population préadolescente. Cette forme d'intelligence se compose de plusieurs habiletés favorables à un meilleur fonctionnement personnel et social. L'étude actuelle permet de connaître cette dimension de l'être humain. Bien qu'elle ne soit qu'un survol préliminaire, elle permet de visiter les domaines de l'art-thérapie, de la psychologie et de l'éducation afin d'y découvrir comment les experts de ces disciplines abordent le vécu émotionnel des individus. Une exploration du phénomène de l'intelligence émotionnelle et des émotions sert de base à la construction du programme qui se veut à la fois, préventif et éducatif. Un regard est porté sur la préadolescence afin d'examiner les besoins des jeunes concernant leur développement affectif. L'atelier d'art-thérapie est le lieu intermédiaire. Le laboratoire d'expérimentations favorables aux apprentissages des notions propres à l'intelligence émotionnelle. Que ce soit par des exercices, des activités artistiques ou divers jeux proposés et dirigés par l'art-thérapeute, le programme élaboré est structuré de façon détaillée tout en décrivant le contenu de chacune des séances et des activités. Une mise en application du programme est exposée afin de démontrer la pertinence de ce projet. L'évaluation des résultats obtenus auprès d'un groupe de préadolescentes, permet d'identifier les besoins de ces jeunes et d'offrir de nouvelles pistes de recherche pour d'éventuelles études dans le domaine.
Gagnon, Joséphine 2002
Emotional intelligence development plan for preadolescents through art-therapy
This research suggests the elaboration of an emotional intelligence development program of a preadolescent population utilizing art-therapy. This form of intelligence is composed of numerous positive abilities that kad to a better personal and sodal functioning. The present study enables to become familiar with this dimension of the human being. Although only a preleminary general view, it allows to visit the realm of art-therapy, of psychology and education to discover how the experts of these disciplines view the emotional experiences of these individuals. A probing into the phenomenon of emotionnal intelligence and emotions serve as the basis for a construction of a preventive and educative program. The preadolescence aspect is observed to examine the needs of this population concerning their affective development. The art-therapy workshop is an intermediary environment that facilitates the discovery of emotional intelligence notions through experimentation such as exercices, artistic activities or various games proposed and supervised by the art-therapist. The program is structured in a detailed way describing the contents of each session and its activities. A clinical observation of this program is described to demonstrate the relevance of this project. An analysis of the results obtained from these sessions with preadolescents allows to identify the needs of this youth group and offers new interesting leads into research for eventual future art therapy studies.
Galarneau, Lucie 1990
Schizophrénie et art thérapie
Le sujet de mon mémoire consiste en une compréhension du sujet schizophrène par le biais de sa création artistique. Le premier chapitre fait l'objet d'un résumé portant sur la genèse de la schizophrénie par une revue de la documentation sur le sujet. Le second chapitre porte sur les principales caractéristiques de l'art des schizophrènes où jeu de formes en tant que manifestations intérieures se voient explicitées par certaines lois du processus psychique. La perturbation de l'économie pathognonomique du processus schizophrénique concernant la relation du moi à l'environnement et à la réalité ouvre la perspective de l'objet d'étude à savoir si l'impulsion créatrice est en quelque sorte une tentative de restitution en tant que psycho dynamique de la schizophrénie. Le troisième chapitre met en relief la mise en application de l'art thérapie à la schizophrénie ou sont explorées différentes fonctions d'un tel processus thérapeutique au moyen de l'art.
Gatterman, Diane 1998
Art Therapy Using Culture as Treatment for Native American Clients
Although art therapy has been noted to be one of the most successful modes of therapy for First Nations peoples (Ferrara, 1994; Dufrene, 1988) and the success rate is increased when "culture as treatment" (Brady, 1995: 1487) is added to the art therapy process (Ferrara, 1994). There is a surprising lack of references to be found on the subject. Of those references available, there are many contradictory viewpoints and limited information on actual art therapy sessions. Therefore, I have relied heavily on personal communications with art therapist, Nadia Ferrara, who works with First Nations people in northern Canadian communities and have had to fill in the gaps using references referring to therapy and counselling techniques instead of clear references and case studies from the field of art therapy. I have, also, taken the majority stance when there is a difference of opinion of one or two authors in a league of many.
One of the key points which has been addressed by several authors (Cattaneo, 1994; Westrich, 1994; Moody, 1995), is that it is not sufficient to merely use a series of recommended art methods, it is essential that the therapist understand the culture which defines First Nations peoples in order to better understanding the potential conflicts and the negative residual effects that may be facing the client and which may effect the client-therapist relationship.
Culture may refer to the history of the people, their adaptation to their physical environment, their artistic expression and appreciations, verbal and nonverbal methods of communication, as well as, patterns of beliefs, feelings, knowledge, values and ideology (Cattaneo, 1994). It is important to realize that cultural differences exist between and within seemingly similar groups of Native Canadians and each client must be regarded as an individual within a larger familial, communal, and sociological context. The therapist who works with a Native Canadian client from a particular tribe would be well advised to learn about the history of the tribe, traditional beliefs and values, and the current tribal organization. Furthermore, it would be useful to leam of the tribe's family structure, age and gender roles, and characteristics of typical nonverbal and paralingual behaviour (Thomason, 1991). Elements which might also prove to be useful would be gaining information on the client's support systems, stress factors, and coping strategies. It would also be helpful to leam about how problems are resolved, the meanings associated with wellness and ill health, and traditional healing practices. Studying both the problems and resources of the tribe could prove to be important information and aid in the client-therapist relationship, as well as aiding in the development of a successful therapy plan (Thomason, 1991).
Gatterman, Diane 1999
Using Art Therapy with Aboriginal Offenders
There is a sharp contrast between the Euro-American and Aboriginal-American conceptualisations of criminality and its consequent treatment. While the Euro-American paradigm views criminality as a pathology of the individual. First Nations peoples view it as a spiritual, emotional, mental and physical imbalance that stems from, and ultimately has repercussions for, outside sources. Because of its holistic approach, emphasis on non-verbal symbolism ,and non-threatening use of art as a therapeutic milieu, art therapy proves to be an efficacious transcultural tool in the treatment of adult offenders at a correctional institution for Aboriginal men. Review and discussion of Euro-American and Aboriginal views of criminality and treatment is followed by a brief discussion of the historic and political context in which First Nations peoples are situated and which must be understood in order to fully grasp the basis for the contemporary social, emotional, and psychological conditions of Aboriginal individuals. This is followed by two case studies, which exemplify the use of art therapy in this context.
Gauthier, Marie-France 1999
Funeral Rituals and the Theory of Loss and Bereavement in Dramatherapy
In this research I am interested in looking at funeral rituals from the Navahos, the Maoris and certain other Polynesian populations to see if we can educate ourselves in order to improve our inevitable and necessary grieving process. First, there is an overview of traditional psychotherapies; from Freud and Melany Klein, to Bowlby and Winnicott, as well as Colin Murray Parkes, on the subject of loss, and how those theories can help someone through the grieving process. Second, I studied the different approaches in Dramatherapy regarding loss and bereavement: Steve Mitchell and his 'ritual theatre model' and 'theatre of self-expression', as well as David Read Johnson and his 'psychodynamic model'. Alida Gersie and Sue Jennings each developed their own approach to deal with loss and bereavement by working with meaningful stories. Finally, inspired by Schechner, I tried to point out similarities that exist between ritual and drama and how we can leam from this early form of theatre in regard to dramatherapy and one's dealing with loss.
Gauthier, Marie-France 2000
How dramatherapy can help adolescents in depression: A focus on the therapeutic process, including the alliance between client and therapist in dramatherapy
The first section of this research paper is a concise review of how medicine defines adolescent depression and explains various diagnostic techniques and treatment methods to help adolescents and children deal with this widespread mood disorder.The second section focuses on personal thoughts about therapeutic process and how I viewed my contribution in a dramatherapy session, as well as the importance of building a therapeutic alliance between the client and myself. This reflection is enriched by the experience of various dramatherapists and how they developed a variety of models while working in the creative arts therapies.
In the third section, the reader will get to know three very special adolescents; Anita, Brenda and Carlo, who suffered from depression and how they worked creatively with the various techniques brought into the sessions. One will see how trust and respect was guiding our processes. The adolescents learned to externalise their problem, therefore, questioning and reflecting on the therapeutic process and their creative journey.
Finally the reader will find some suggestions in regards to working in dramatherapy with depressive adolescents.
Geoffroy, Marielle 1998
Symbol Formation in Human Development and in the Process of Art Making in Art Therapy
As an artist and as a student art therapist, 1 have become increasingly interested in the symbolic dimension of art and art making. I consider images as symbolic forms that can open a unique way of communication between the different parts of oneself, and with the world. In this way, I share the view ofArieti in believing the image to be the most primitive form of symbolic function and in seeing the development of the symbolic life as the basis for creativity and integration in the human being (1976). In support of this view, Deri (1984) even contends that creativity cannot exist without symbolization and is rooted in symbolization (1984). This is why I have chosen to begin a research on the roles of symbols and symbol formation in human development, with the purpose in mind of relating the process of symbolization to the creative process of art making in art therapy. Jung wrote in 1964 : « the really complex and unfamiliar part of the mind. from which symbols are produced, is still virtually unexplored » (p.93). I think that this statement is still valid today, and that art therapy has a special contribution to make in the exploration of the symbolic dimensions of human life, because art therapy is deeply involved with the symbolic dimension of art. Art therapy is therefore at a unique place to influence and support individual growth by enabling the individual to create relationhips to symbolic levels of experience, through a therapeutic process of art making.
Borrowing a Jungian perspective, I believe that one of the main goals of psychotherapy is to help the individual contact his symbolic life. By engaging oneself in the symbolic process, one leams to hold together polarised forces within oneself and to find ways to integrate or to transform conflicts, and one leams to explore other dimensions of being. In this process, energies of reparation, integration and transformation are at work. They lead the individual to the discovery of one's own powers of creativity and they activate the creative forces within oneself. The exploration, development and release of the creative spirit become then the stepping stones toward change. They encourage new realizations and promote new accomplishments. Edinger(1972) said eloquently: « modem man's most urgent need is to discover the reality and value of the inner subjective world of the psyche, to discover the symbolic life ».
This research is based on the belief that symbol formation is an essential stage in the development of the human being and that the successful achievement of symbolization is necessary for the accomplishment of later stages of development. It is also motivated by the belief that art therapy is a unique therapeutic modality that can provide powerful therapeutic tools to encourage the process of symbolization in the individual, because its very medium is the symbolic representation of experiences in the form of images. As a therapeutic approach, I also believe that art therapy can offer innovative ways in which to support and foster the symbolic process in the individual. This study investigates the process of symbol formation in human development, with the goal of focusing on related elements in the area of development of the self, which can then be linked to the practice of symbol making in art therapy. It also introduces elements that could be examined more in depth in a future research, and applied more specifically to the therapeutic domain of art therapy. I hope, through these investigations, to propose new avenues for the development of the symbolization process in art therapy.
In the last chapter of this paper, I will convey some ideas of research that could be further explored in art therapy, such as the use of the process and techniques of play and of guided visualization to foster the creation of symbols through image making.
This is a literary review, the purpose of which is to collect, analyse and synthesize studies already done in my particular area of research. This work studies how symbolic forms and symbolic processes can provide ways in which to support different stages of development in the self and encourage the individuation process. It tries to gather a brief, yet comprehensive, view on the subject of symbol formation, as it pertains to human growth. It also tries to summarize some authors' views on the process of symbolization in the context of art therapy. Through this research, I have tried to deepen my understanding of the emergence and formation of symbols, and to begin a study on the process of symbolization, which will be pursued in greater length in a research thesis.
In keeping within the boundaries of this particular study, my research first tries to define, through various views, the nature of symbols and to delineate their functions. It also attempts to understand, through various perspectives, what causes the emergence of symbols in the human experience. This leads me to the consideration of certain symbolization processes in child development. Transitional phenomena in early relations are examined in view of the process of symbolization and linked to the process of self differentiation and ego formation in object relations. From this perspective, the role of symbolization in the context of art making and art therapy is investigated.
Geoffroy, Marielle 1999
Post traumatic Play in Art Therapy: A Case Study Exploring the Ritual Play Process in the Art Making of a Sexually Abused Child
Sexual abuse in children is presented as having a traumatic impact that involves emotional shock, distress, and critical damage to the psychological organization of the self. Young children who have been traumatized demonstrate a particular type of play called posttraumatic play. Children relive their trauma through compulsive repetitions that show ritualistic enactments in play. Trauma reactions following sexual abuse have been considered by some authors as responses to grief and inner losses. Through a literature review, this paper examines the therapeutic functions of play and ritual, and focuses more specifically on the role of ritual in times of crisis. Crises are defined as involving experiences of loss and separation that require a grieving process for new life conditions to emerge. The author proposes that sexually abused children, through the ritualistic dimension of posttraumatic play, may express an unconscious need for a process that can help them grieve inner losses. Based on this premise, this research studies the development of ritual processes in the posttraumatic play and art making of a sexually abused child in art therapy. It explores a treatment approach that encourages the development of ritual making in art therapy with sexually traumatized children, in order to foster creative changes in their play patterns. It proposes a therapeutic model of intervention based on play and on the ritual dimension of movement stories in art therapy, to support the symbolic extemalization of trauma and to offer a transitional space for grieving inner losses.
Gericke, Irene Rosenberg 1988
Art Therapy Case Study: Psychological Sequelae of an Adolescents Abortion
The motivations for seeking pregnancy and the experience of and reactions to an abortion are central in this examination of an adolescent's art work created in art therapy. The literature on adolescent abortion and post abortion therapy is reviewed. The studies surveyed conclude that any psychological sequelae which occur in an adolescent after an abortion can be traced to' emotional problems existing prior to the abortion, ambivalence about having the operation, and the type of procedure experienced. This thesis suggests that of the three proposals the motivation for pregnancy becomes significant when looking at abortion sequelae, as often pregnancy is a maladaptive response to a conflict that the adolescent is experiencing. Once the abortion is over, the girl is left to resolve whatever prompted the pregnancy.
The thesis proposes that this was the situation with "Ann". Her art work revealed that her pregnancy was a response to the fear of separation from the pre-oedipal Mother. Sadness and anger, graphically illustrated, related to this anticipated loss, fused with the loss of self as Mother, that is, the abortion. The pictures follow Ann's identification from part Mother, part self, and part fetus to her slow disengagement from her Mother. It is only when Mother and self have become separate that Ann can mourn the loss of the pre-oedipal Mother as well as the loss of the fetus.
Godbout, Pascale 2006
Les rendez-vous du jeudi avec Béatrice, Benoit, Samuel et Victor: Une étude de cas sur l'art-thérapie et la maladie d'Alzheimer
La présente recherche porte sur l'application de l'art-thérapie auprès de personnes atteintes de la maladie d'Alzheimer. Elle veut montrer comment l'art-thérapeute, en s'appuyant sur l'approche centrée sur la personne et sur le processus créatif, peut entrer en relation avec les personnes atteintes et comment la relation ainsi établie peut entraîner des bienfaits pour ces dernières, en ce qui concerne le maintien de leur sens identitaire et l'amélioration de leur bien-être.
L'étude s'est déroulée lors d'un stage de maîtrise en art-thérapie effectué à la clinique de mémoire d'un centre hospitalier de Montréal, entre septembre 2005 et mars 2006. Elle porte sur le cas de Béatrice, Benoit , Samuel et Victor – octogénaires atteints de la maladie d'Alzheimer – qui ont participé pendent cette période aux rencontres hebdomadaires du groupe d'art-thérapie. Le présent travail comprend trois chapitres: une description de la maladie d'Alzheimer, une revue de la littérature sur l'approche centrée sur la personne et l'art-thérapie auprès de personnes atteintes de démence, et la présentation de l'étude de cas proprement dite, en particulier le parcours individuel de chacun des quatre participants. Les résultats de cette recherche démontrent les effets positifs et prometteurs de l'application de l'art-thérapie de groupe auprès de personnes atteintes de la maladie d'Alzheimer.
Les rendez-vous du jeudi avec Beatrice, Benoit, Samuel et Victor: A case study on art therapy and Alzheimer's disease
The present research explores the use of art therapy with people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on the person-centered approach and the creative process, the study examines the establishment of a therapeutic relationship with AD patients and demonstrates the benefits of such an intervention on identity preservation and well-being.
This research was conducted during a Master's degree practicum at the memory clinic in a hospital of Montreal, between September 2005 and March 2006. The study includes the cases of Beatrice, Benoit, Samuel and Victor, who participated in an art therapy group during sixteen weeks.
The present paper is divided into the following three chapters: an overview of Alzheimer's disease; a literature review on the person-centered approach and art therapy with individuals suffering from dementia; and the presentation of the case study, with particular attention given to each participant's journey. The results suggest positive and promising benefits of the use of art therapy with this population.
Godfrey, Jodie 1996
Social Context of Death, Dying and Loss in Art Therapy
This author's purpose for this research paper is to explore self-expression related issues of loss of older adult and their social context and determine effects of art therapy interventions. The ethnic diverse population of Canada who are approaching the final stage of their life is increasing and they risk coping with death in Western society. The older adults are of diverse cultural and social origins, all struggle with their losses and their own impending death. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the knowledge currently on the subject of death and dying, grieving, and to present issues on the older adult and the significance of creative therapeutic intervention.
Godfrey, Jodie 1998
Loss, trauma, and acculturation: Art therapy with an immigrant boy
Immigrant children may be at a loss to understand and integrate their situation. Art therapy is a powerful tool to facilitate expression of emotion and a way to develop new patterns of communication, In Roth's Spiderman drawing completed in his fourth session appears to have lines, grid formation across a figure. Roth explains it as a character “who could not show his face...you can not tell if he is smiling or not...and his hands and feet were tied back.” Roth found art therapy as a non-threatening vehicle through which to work and a way to tell his stories of his loss, trauma, and acculturation process.
Gold, Coleen 1989
Freudian Aesthetics: A Survey of Psychoanalytic Theories of Art Relevant to Art Therapy
This thesis surveys psychoanalytic aesthetic theories and Freudian ideas that have contributed to a conception of art as therapeutic. Freud's theories of art are outlined, from material based largely on Fuller and Spector. Ideas of writers, who extend or modify Freud's theories towards the establishment of a psychoanalytic aesthetic, including Spitz, Kris, and Ricoeur, are presented. Developments of Freud's theories of art by object relations theorists are discussed. Some theories of art will be described in detail including Freud's sublimation theory, Klein's model of art as reparation in the depressive position and Winnicott's theory of transitional phenomena. Thus, a line of development is traced, beginning with Freud, who hinted at the therapeutic function of art by emphasizing the instinctual elements that motivate and are made manifest in art, continuing through the adaptive (ego psychology), object relational (Klein) and environmental (Winnicott) theories to arrive at Milner, who advocated art therapy and incorporated the use of art into psychoanalysis.
Goldberg, Laura 1985
Art Therapy Case Study: The Mythological Heroic Journey
A physically disabled child was seen in short term art therapy. His art work is presented with the focus on the therapeutic journey into the unconscious and how it manifests itself visually. This is explored on the level of the child's inner journey as it relates to various factors and events in his life, which is compared with the mythological heroic journey. Various theoretical viewpoints are presented to explain the psychological effects of hospitalization, adoption, and physical disabilities upon this child, and how they activate the archetypal quest of the hero. A Jungian approach is taken to explain the concepts of archetypes, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious in relation to this child's journey with the personal and mythological realms. Art therapy is discussed as a modality for facilitating the expression of inner experience.
Goldman, Sondra 1994
Intercultural Intervention in Art Therapy
This thesis explores issues of theory and practice relating to intercultural intervention in the field of art therapy. Cultural factors need to be acknowledged in order to render relevant therapeutic services to our culturally diverse clientele. Intercultural intervention in art therapy can no longer be considered just an item of interest; it is now an ethical necessity. The goal of this thesis is to identify and expand upon the issues involved in intercultural intervention. These issues include therapeutic definitions and assumptions, expectations, theoretical orientations, communication styles, and assessment procedures. The research cited in this thesis is derived from many sources including literature on art therapy, art education, intercultural communication and intercultural intervention. Ultimately, the aim of this research is to become aware of the potential cultural gaps and conflicts that exist between art therapists and clients, and then to suggest ways in which they may be overcome.
Gorman, Gwynneth 2003
Embodiment of Health: Using Dramatherapy to Heal from Cancer
Thousands of people will be diagnosed with cancer this year however, due to advances in medicine it can be assumed that the vast majority of these people will live for many years after their initial diagnosis, if not in fact, their entire expected lifetimes. The experience of living with and being treated for, a life-threatening illness can be for some people physically and emotionally damaging. In recent years research has begun to recognize the effect that the mind/body connection has in regards to healing. In response to the needs of those living with cancer, therapeutic support groups are beginning to use mind/body techniques such as visualization, yoga, and creative arts more frequently. This research paper examines how dramatherapy's own process of embodiment can facilitate healing in individuals who have completed treatment for cancer by enhancing the communication between their minds and bodies. Jones' three main areas of focus within the embodiment process (potential body, body transformed and social body) serve as a structure through which to examine in what way this mind/body connection may occur.
Graham, Stuart 2004
Between Scylla and Charybdis: The Sandplay Therapy of a gay man with Developmental Disabilities
A qualitative case study of 18 sessions of the Jungian sandplay therapy of a gay man with brain damage, developmental disabilities, and a speech disorder, and who is illiterate is presented. A survey of the literature revealed little research about sandplay therapy with gay men and about this population in drama or art therapy. A similar situation existed regarding the use of sandplay therapy with people with developmental disabilities. Personal background information on the client/research participant is presented, as are selected sandtray images. Recurring and evolving themes are identified from the sandtrays and the participant's utterances: religious attitudes about appropriate sexual behaviour, gender identity and sexual orientation, and sexuality, all within the frame of gay self-acceptance. The role of supervision is discussed. The case study is contextualized with reference to general theory regarding oppression and stigmatization and their internalization, multipleoppression, as well as theory specific to gay men and disability. It is further framed in terms of gay identity formation or the “coming out' process. Jungian theory is critiqued in terms of its adequacy in accounting for gay men's experience. The role of a gay therapist with a gay client is considered. Recommendations are made regarding therapist education, training, and supervision, as well as further research.
Grenier, Diane 1998
L'espace pictural en art thérapie et les cas particuliers de la surface rectangulaire
Le présent travail de recherche porte sur la valeur métaphorique et symbolique de l'espace pictural en art thérapie. Aussi, il cherche à comprendre la valeur thérapeutique respective de la surface circulaire et de la surface rectangulaire à dessiner ou à peindre. Pour cela il met à contribution les concepts spatiaux centrique et excentrique compte tenu des structures fortement spatialisées de la psyché humaine.
Son objectif est de montrer comment les formats circulaires et rectangulaires peuvent tout autant supporter les conditions art thérapeutiques de contenance, de miroir et de lieu créatif de transformation, en mettant l'emphase différemment sur certaines dimensions de ces aspects plutôt que d'autres. Les deux types d'espace correspondent à des propositions spatiales aux structures propres qui contribuent à l'entreprise thérapeutique de manière spécifique, l'un offrant un contexte plus centrique et l'autre plus excentrique. La discussion maintiendra que l'important pour l'art thérapeute n'est pas de privilégier nécessairement une surface ou l'autre, mais d'en faire un usage et d'en avoir une compréhension relative et contextuelle.
Grenier, Diane 1999
Le corps imaginaire et le corps réel dans la fybromyalgie
Ce travail de recherche porte sur l'imagerie inconsciente de personnes atteintes de fibromyalgie. Il présente les études de cas de quatre patientes traitées en art thérapie pendant plusieurs mois et analyse leur expression picturale.
Cette recherche, dans une perspective psychanalytique du psychosomatique, se situe dans le cadre théorique spatio-temporel et relationnel de Sami Ali. L'étude suggère l'existence de failles précoces relatives au narcissisme primaire qui pourraient, chez les patientes étudiées, être prédisposantes à la maladie. Il y aurait, chez elles, des distorsions des perceptions des rapports de distances dans 1'espace, des rythmes du temps, de la différence entre soi et non soi, et de l'action. Ces distorsions imaginaire/réel prendraient une forme d'impasse qui serait susceptible d'être exacerbée par les conflits des contextes et les conditions socioculturelles. Comme Sami Ali en formule l'hypothese, ces impasses inconscientes arythmiques pourraient intimement se relier à des désorganisations des mécanismes régulateurs neurophysiologiques ou immunitaires. La fibromyalgie serait ainsi susceptible de trouver son origine dans une intrication profonde et interactive du psychique et du somatique. Une dérégularisation à la fois subjective et objective pourraient expliquer les symptômes de douleur musculo squelettique, la fatigue, les troubles des cycles du sommeil, 1'association a la dépression, l'hétérogénéité de ses facteurs déclenchants et l'atteinte plus fréquente des femmes dans un contexte social de redéfinition des rôles sexuels.
En ce qui a trait au traitement, les conclusions de cette recherche favoriserait toute intervention qui met l'accent sur le relationnel, l'imaginaire, la créativité, l'expression non verbale des émotions, les sensations corporelles et le corps en mouvement. En ce sens, l'art-therapie est certainement un moyen psychothérapeutique indiqué dans le traitement de la fibromyalgie et plus généralement dans celui des somatisations.
Haist, Victoria 1999
Filling the Inner Hunger: Drama Therapy for the Treatment of Eating Disorder a Literature Review
This paper is an exploration of the research question how can drama therapy be used for the treatment of eating disorders. A thorough literature review presents a summary of the currently accepted theories on causal factors for the development of an eating disorder. The second section of the paper is dedicated to a review of how drama therapy and the other creative arts therapies have been used in relation to eating disorders to date. Specific attention is placed on the role of low self esteem and body image issues because they are considered fundamental to the development of eating disorders and affect a great number of women in the population today. Based on this rationale, a final section was dedicated to the creative arts therapies and the treatment of low self esteem and body image with a rationale that prevention of eating disorders might be feasible by targeting these two areas. The paper concludes with suggestions for further research and acknowledgement of limitations.
Haist, Victoria 2000
Body Drama: The Utilization of Drama Therapy for the Exploration and Treatment of Negative Body Image
This research paper is a documentation of a drama therapy group aimed at exploration and treatment of negative body image. It focuses on the process of the group and the activities that were utilized for treatment and on the participant's experience of the drama therapy activities and their perception of the activities' effectiveness. Pre and post measures as well as leader observations are also taken into consideration for assessing the effectiveness of drama therapy for treatment and personal growth. The feedback of the participants and the post test results were positive and supportive, indicating that drama therapy may be helpful for exploring and treating negative body image.
Halle, Geneviève 2005
L'art-thérapie: un outil pour favoriser la réussite de l'intégration scolaire d'enfants ayant une déficience auditive
Ce travail de recherche propose l'étude clinique d'un adolescent ayant une déficience auditive et qui se retrouve dans le processus de l'intégration scolaire avec tous les changements et l'adaptation que cela comporte. Ayant moi-même vécu ce même processus à l'âge de six ans, j'explore comment l'art-thérapie peut intervenir et aider dans la réussite de cette intégration. Je n'ai pas eu de services d'art-thérapie étant jeune, mais j'ai vécu le processus d'intégration scolaire et j'ai connu l'importance de l'art au sens large dans ma vie. Donc, je peux témoigner de l'impact que cela a eu sur mon développement personnel. Ce travail de recherche abordera, selon une approche phénoménologique, les différents aspects de l'intégration scolaire pouvant être retrouvés dans le processus thérapeutique. Ces différents aspects seront aussi abordés à la lumière des approches de Winnicott et Robbins. J'expliquerai alors comment un adolescent a pu témoigner de son processus à l'intérieur de cadre thérapeutique fourni par l'art-thérapie.
Harnden, Bonnie 1995
Starving For Expression inside the Secret Theatre: An Art and Drama Therapy Group with Individuals Suffering from Eating Disorders
This paper is a documentation of an art and drama therapy group with anorexic and bulimic patients. It focuses on the therapeutic process of three cases. This paper looks at the core issue of anorexia nervosa and bulimia as being failure in the developmental stage of separation individuation. It discusses how in this art and drama therapy group this core issue was addressed and expressed throughout the therapeutic process.
Harriet, Susan 1997
The Potentials of Using Art Therapy in Helping Adolescents Cope with Chronic Illness
The topic of this research paper is the use of art therapy as a modality for helping adolescents cope with chronic illness. Adolescence will be the first topic addressed in this paper. Erikson and Piaget will be the primary theoretical references, while several other resources will facilitate comprehension of issues concerning this period of life. A brief discussion of adolescent art therapy will also be included within the first section. The following section will address the topic of chronic illness and how it affects people's lives. The relevance of concepts such as "locus of control" which influence an individual's effort and ability to cope, as well as the coping process itself will be examined. Finally, art therapy will then be explored both theoretically and practically. Specific references to the client centered, humanistic and existential approaches will be made. The intent of this paper is to develop a background perspective on the topics of adolescence, chronic illness and art therapy through the use of contemporary resources, and to establish links between theory, research and practice which would illustrate their interrelatedness.
Harriet, Susan 2000
The Shared Experience of Chronic Illness: A Comparison Study of Adolescents
The general topic of this research paper is the experience of living with a chronic illness. This will be explored through adolescents' perceptions of self and of their lives at different periods of time, as indicated through their images and corresponding words. This research compares images and dialogue from two differing groups. One group whose members are living with Juvenile Diabetes, the other serving as a control group, whose members are not living with any type of chronic illness. The comparison aims to determine whether or not the images and words of the diabetic group exhibit more negative responses (as defined by this study) than do those of the control group. This study's hypothesis is as follows: "Combined checklist results of the control group will contain less negative answers than those of the diabetic group." This hypothesis was confirmed through the study.
The topics of projective techniques, adolescence, and chronic illness namely diabetes, will be addressed in addition to a thorough description of the study and of its results. Results are described and examined in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. Though Juvenile Diabetes is the target illness of this study, results may apply to other types of chronic illness. Similarly, results may also offer insight on age groups other than adolescence, which is the population studied in this present research.
Harvey, Christine A. 1985
By Myself: Symbols and Sensations; a description of a high school art class that focused on body experience in developing an image of the self
The relationship between body image and self concept has been demonstrated by research in psychology and in studies of human behaviour. The period of adolescence is one in which the physical self is a central concern to the individual, this aspect of self concept contains all the characteristics needed in the establishment of an ego identity and attempt to define the ideal self.
Contemporary education theorists state a need in the secondary school's curriculum for preparing the student to function in society and for giving opportunities for self-esteem and self-fulfillment. Art education has a greater capacity for effecting personal growth than many other disciplines and it is proposed that body experience in art making can elicit a self-actualizing description of the concerns of adolescence. An art programme was presented during the course of one school year so that the body image was the central motivating concept around which art ideas developed.
This thesis presents a phenomenological description of the work and ideas of twenty Grade 11 art students. The students were encouraged to manifest self-description through art making that involved the physical self. The ideas embodied in the self descriptions were then carried through in the construction of a personal space by each student and videotaped performance within it. A description of the statements made in the videotape show that an art programme can be a helpful environment in which to allow the adolescent to contemplate on, and represent, personal fears, a symbolic view of the world, and a growing awareness of the self.
Haslam, Michael John 1985
Art Therapy Considered Within the Anthropological Tradition of Symbolic Healing
In this study art therapy is compared with anthropological evidence of healing practices that use visual images. Archaeological and anthropological literature regarding the uses of visual art during the Paleolithic Era was consulted. Research led to the conclusion that Paleolithic art was created and maintained within a magico-religious system that resembled shamanism. Studies of shamanism were examined, indicating that the shaman was the first symbolic healer. Studies of the healing practices of the Navaho were consulted. This particular system was chosen because it evolved from shamanism, is well documented, and utilizes visual images extensively. A tradition of symbolic healing is described and analyzed to reveal several key factors: the sacred space, the healing relationship, and the transformational symbol. Art therapy is considered within this context, and some conclusions are drawn. Art therapy case material is discussed with reference to symbolic healing.
Hawkins, Heather R. 2007
Living with Chronic Renal Failure during Adolescence: An Exploration of Issues Through Art Therapy
Chronic renal failure is a pervasive illness that drastically affects the lives of adolescent patients. The complexities of how living with chronic renal failure affects the psychosocial adjustment for patients during adolescence can be better understood by taking into account the developmental tasks that face this age group. This research presents a qualitative case study that investigates how art therapy can be used to explore the psychosocial issues experienced by a 15-year-old female diagnosed with chronic renal failure. Over a seven-month period, data was gathered during art therapy sessions conducted while the participant was receiving hemodialysis treatments at a pediatric hospital. Prevalent issues that emerged from the data were the participant's perceived lack of control, difficulty integrating her illness into her self-concept, and challenges in adhering to treatment. Violet was able to express, acknowledge and work through these issues through art therapy. The findings suggest that art therapy is an appropriate intervention while working with this population. Further study is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of art therapy in addressing specific issues, such as treatment adherence.
Heller, Vera 1994
Death and Rebirth in the Creative Process: Applications in Art Therapy
The theme of this paper is Death and Rebirth in the creative process regarded first from a theoretical and then from a practical point of view as an application in the art therapy process.
The theoretical discussion is aimed at showing, on the one hand, how the fear of death blocks the creative process. On the other hand, it will be shown how death can be integrated within one's personality as a major source of creativity.
The theme of death and rebirth will be theoretically examined from three different viewpoints. The first one is an analysis of the internal structure of the creative process by Anton Ehrenzweig. The second perspective on the subject is brought by Ernest Becker, who attempts to explain within a post Freudian frame of reference the "why" of the fear of death and how it affects the individual's psychological life in terms of creativity on the one hand and of mental health on the other. In the third chapter, James Hillman provides an understanding of the same theme from the perspective of the soul in relation to death and suggests that death can be integrated in one's psychological life, as a source of creativity and of a meaningful life.
The case material and artwork included in the fourth chapter represents the use of the theoretical material from the previous chapters as a frame of reference for the understanding of the process of art therapy.
Herman, Deborah Ann 1989
Suicide and Art Therapy: Exploring the Pictorial Expression of Features Related to Suicidal Intent
This study aims to identify and explore some of the features related to suicide intent in order to further understand the dynamics and various degrees of lethality of self destructive tendencies as revealed through the art. The present study seeks to establish that depressive aspects appear throughout most of the artwork of acutely suicidal subjects.
The study focuses primarily on psychiatric patients' artwork and their relationship to suicidal ideation and acting out through the exploration of five features: hopelessness, isolation, anger, aggression, and low self-esteem in persons who attempted suicide. In recent years, studies on the issue of hopelessness as a salient factor related to suicidal intent have been given particular attention. According to Beck, hopelessness is a significant factor in motivating attempted suicide. Six theoretical approaches to suicide the psychoanalytic, sociological, psychodynamic, cognitive, archetypal, and 'cognitive psychoanalytic' are discussed.
This thesis suggests that the application of cognitive psychoanalytical theory to art therapy is a valuable tool for dealing diagnostically with the suicidal person and crisis.
Herring, Kerri 1995
Art Therapy in Shelters with Children from Violent Homes
There is a need for direct intervention with children from violent homes in a shelter setting. This research paper establishes a psychosocial basis of art therapy as an important mode of intervention with children from violent homes staying in shelters. The research presents a pragmatic look at characteristics of the shelter setting and children from violent homes. It also reviews intervention strategies that have so far been implemented to reach these children. An interview with an art therapy student who has interned at a shelter, and an interview with the shelter's director conclude the research.
Hopf, Gabriele 1993
Group Art Therapy with Schizophrenics in a Drop in Center
Exploring the application of non directive group art therapy in a schizophrenic population, this thesis has two parts. In the first part concepts of group therapy and group art therapy are presented and examined in their relevancy to schizophrenic clients. In the second part these concepts are integrated in the description of an open art therapy group
of schizophrenics at a drop in center.
While describing a non confrontational, non directive approach, this thesis does not focus on interpretive interventions, but instead emphasizes the importance of the group art work as communication bridge between therapist and group members.
Hoye, Sarah Margaret 1997
Looking at Borderline Personality Disorder in Art Therapy: An Exploration of Abandonment and Shame
This research paper explores Borderline Personality Disorder and specific supporting theories within the context of art therapy. An in-depth literature review of the disorder is presented, including the predisposing factors, evolutionary history of the diagnosis, and prognosis. Many theories are presented to explain the psychological issues, including those ideas of prominent art therapists. Of particular interest are the crises which manifest from the problems of shame and abandonment, which are characteristic of Borderline Personality Disorder. Case material of a Borderline patient in art therapy illustrates the psychological theories, core issues, treatment, and processes in the special field of art therapy. The paper is concluded with a critical integration of the theories and observations of the case study within the context of art therapy.
Hoye, Sarah Margaret 1998
An Exploration of Normal and Pathological Attachment and Separation in Children: A Literature Review and Art Therapy Case Study
This research paper explores a selection of theories describing the creation of normal and pathological bonds, or attachments. It also illustrates how pathological attachment problems in young children might appear in their behaviours, be expressed through the art materials and art process, and be helped through the treatment of art therapy. In the first three chapters, the work of three theorists, John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, and Margaret Mahler, are presented for psychological discussion upon the issues of attachment. Chapter IV presents a case study in art therapy of a young boy with an insecure attachment to his primary caregiver. During the course of treatment, he was able to express his attachment issues clearly through the art materials and art process, and through his relationship with me, the student art therapist. Chapter V interprets the art therapy case in more depth, discusses the boy's expression of attachment issues in terms of the psychological theories of Bowlby. Ainsworth, and Mahler (Chapters I, II, and III), and follows with a final conclusion of this paper.
Huot, Sophie 2002
The Assessment of Attachment Security through Art Therapy: A Case Study Illustration
This research paper explores the expression of attachment patterns in drawings. It begins by giving an overview of attachment theory, particularly reviewing Bowlby's concept of internal working models of relationships and Fonagy's ideas on the development of children's perception of themselves as thinking and feeling beings. Current applications of attachment theory in art therapy research are also summarized. These concepts are then illustrated with the case study of a 9 year old boy diagnosed with disrupted attachment, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder. The Family Drawing Checklist (FDC) devised by Fury (1996; Fury, Carlson & Sroufe, 1997) to categorize family drawings according to attachment type is used to analyze this boy's family portrait, as well as the drawings he made in his individual art therapy sessions. These results classify his work as being insecurely attached but without distinguishing between insecure attachment types. The Kerns Security Scale (KSS) constructed by Kerns, Klepac & Coles (1996) is also utilized to glean more information about his attachment status. Its results show that he is securely attached to his father but insecurely attached to his mother. Links between this child's artistic production, his attachment patterns, and the results of the FDC and the KSS, support the blend of art therapy and attachment theory when treating children with attachment disorders.
Ilnicki, Diann 1999
Drawing on Dreams: An Art Therapy Contribution to Group Dream Work
Ullman's model of group dream work (1979, 1988, 1990), developed outside the clinical setting, is identified as a safe and effective means of cultivating self understanding. This approach organizes the participation of all members in promoting one dreamer's discovery of the dream's metaphoric representation. The integration of a drawing response to the target dream represents an art therapy contribution to this approach to dream work. The individual drawings extend the possibility for each member to recognize projective and introjective resonances with the dream, thereby enhancing self awareness. The model's fundamental endorsement of the dreamer's control over the process, and his or her authority over the dream's meaning, suggests that this approach, although not intended for clinical use, may be potentially beneficial for patients diagnosed with an eating disorder, given an underdeveloped sense of agency specific to this population. The collected data offers evidence of this hypothesis. Discussion of selected clinical illustrations provides support for positioning this integrated model at the end stage of treatment, rather than the beginning, as was the case in this study. It is suggested that there may be advantages in modifying the placement of the drawing response, as well as its application within the dream work. Consideration is given to the adaptation of this integrated model of dream work and drawing for use by more severely symptomatic patients.
Ionescu-Vaccarino, Cosmina 1985
Art Therapy as a ‘Transitional Phenomenon' with Special Emphasis on the Treatment of Psychosis Exemplified in a Case Study
The concept of art therapy as a transitional phenomenon, especially in relation to the treatment of psychosis was investigated. Transitional phenomena, a Winicottian concept, refer to acts of symbolic attachment (usually seen in infancy) which function to alleviate the anxiety experienced in the absence of the nurturing figure. The major issue of the psychotic phenomenon which is probably the defective relationship of the individual's inner reality with external reality is often considered a developmental failure. It is suggested that the art therapy situation can sometimes function as a transitional phenomenon and provide a neutral "intermediate" zone between fantasy and reality where the psychotic's overwhelming inner reality (fantasy) and outer reality can meet and interact safely. Also as encouragement to play, as framing of fantasy, and most importantly as creative act, art therapy may be a way to bridge two realities. And in the case of the psychotic individual, art therapy may provide the opportunity to experience a reparatory process of affective growth which may have been missed developmentally. A case study of a manic depressive patient is presented to illustrate these ideas. This thesis sees the art therapeutic process as a creative act and views the art making and relating to one's own art as transitional phenomena which contain the healing ingredients specific to art therapy.
Jetté, Chantal 1994
Le potentiel thérapeutique de la régression en art thérapie
Cette étude porte sur le potentiel thérapeutique de la régression en art thérapie. Elle vise à comprendre et démystifier le concept de régression ou plutôt les divers concepts de régression dans la littérature en psychanalyse. En évaluant les phénomènes régressifs qui se présentent inévitablement en thérapie de type analytique, il est possible de comprendre où se trouve le niveau réel des besoins du patient, pour ainsi orienter la thérapie dans ce sens. La régression s'avère, selon plusieurs auteurs, nécessaire à la cure et bénéfique au patient si vécu dans un environnement supportant, avec un thérapeute bien préparé.
Des aspects plus spécifiques à la régression en art thérapie sont ensuite exposés: la régression au service du Moi, l'évaluation de la régression en art thérapie, la valeur thérapeutique de la régression en art thérapie et les qualités régressives des médiums artistiques.
Deux études de cas de notre pratique en art thérapie, une avec un enfant et l'autre avec une jeune adulte, illustrent 1) comment nous parvenons, dans l'analyse du processus créateur, du transfert, du comportement, etc. à situer les points de fixation (ici de niveau pré oedipien, pré verbal) dans le développement affectif du patient et 2) comment le patient lui-même, dans une relation et un environnement de confiance, fait agir cette régression dans un but de meilleure intégration.
Joly, Emanuelle 2005
L'integration du traumatisme d'abus sexuel comme alternative a sa dissociation: Le processus de creation et d'exploration d'histoires fictives en dramatherapie
Ce projet de recherche explore tout d'abord le phenomene de dissociation auquel ont couramment recours les enfantsayant vecu de l'abus sexuel. Des theoroies expliquant pourquoi l'approche narrative en therapie favorise l'integration plutot que la dissociation de l'experience traumantique a l'histoire personelle d'un individu sont presentees et expliquees. La dramatherapie, que utilise le processus de creation et d'exploration d'histoires fictives, est preentee comme une approche parageant la philosophie et les principes sous-jacents de l'approche narrative. Puisque la dramatherapie utilise la meraphore, elle favorise et facilite l'exploration de materiel traumatique, intolerable et inaccessible si contacte a l'etat brut. Cette etude de cas a pour objet le processus therapeutique d'un enfant ayant ete victime d'abus sexuel et demontrant un recours a la dissociation comme mecanisme psychologique de defense et d'adaptation. La dramatherapie, les histroires fictives et la metaphore servent ice de cadres de reference a travers lesquels le processus d'integration de l'experience traumatique vecue par un enfant victime d'abus sexuel est examine.
Joron, Nicole 1991
Traité du Moi peau, impressions en art thérapie
Dans cette thèse, je travaillerai à l'idée du Moi peau élaborée par Didier Anzieu et de son appropriation à l'art thérapie. J'envisage la question du Moi-peau d'une manière spéculative et je me fais une conception personnelle de la théorie. Je débute par des évocations rétrospectives du Moi dans une perspective réelle et humaine, c'est à dire par le corps.
J'étudie particulièrement le concept du Moi peau d'Anzieu et des fonctions du Moi-peau chez la personne normale. A partir de ces fondements théoriques, et d'une perspective en art thérapie, j'interprète, analyse et je pose les questions suivantes : la toile, la feuille deviennent elles des substituts de peau? Est ce que l'art thérapie suscite le réaménagement des limites du Moi peau? Est ce que la surface, toile de fond, favorise I'intégrité de l'enveloppe corporelle? Et garantit-elle l'intégrité du contenu psychique? Quelle est la portée de l'acte créateur sur la surface de contacts? En dernier lieu, il résulte de nouvelles ressources d'analyse pour l'art thérapie.
Jurasek, David-Jan 2005
A self-revelatory research inquiry into becoming a drama therapist
The intention of this research paper is to communicate to the reader how the exploration of the role of the guide through the processes of qualitative research (heuristic and art-based) and drama therapy (symbolic representation, story-making, role method, and self-revelatory performance) has affected the personal transformation and professional development of myself, a young male drama therapist. I will be describing the search and discovery of various findings about the guide role, especially in relation to the role of the drama therapist. I will also outline how a synthesis of the various drama therapeutic research methodologies contributed to my process of learning and growth. And finally, I will share with you, the reader, the various insights and gains I have received from this intensive journey into the heart of myself. This work is presented to inspire you (colleagues, artists, seekers, finders, guides, and clients alike) to search and become your own guides as well as to understand more intimately this process through the eyes of a researcher and drama therapist.
Kajzer, Branko 2003
Culturally Diverse World: Creative Expression of an Immigrant/ Refugee Child in an Art Welcome Class
The following paper summarizes some issues relating to the cross-cultural dimension of art therapy. The paper describes a creative and verbal expression of an immigrant child in a classroom setting. Art and creative expression is seen to be a powerful tool in expressing the experience of immigrants and refugees. The primary goal of this study was to observe and discuss graphic representations in the content of the drawings as well as to discuss the themes in the content of verbal (narrative) description produced by a nine-year old boy of immigrant parents. Art therapists are confronted with unusual problems in the areas of intervention, interpretation and communication when dealing with clients from other cultures. However, drawings and paintings (graphic representation) reflect the participants' message about their conflict and their means of dealing with them.
Kielo, Joanne 1988
A Study of Art Therapists' Counter transference and Post Session Imagery
This study explores some ways in which art therapists can use their own pictorial imagery to facilitate therapeutic progress and to understand their conscious and unconscious counter transference responses. The first phase of this exploratory study is based upon open ended interviews with professional art therapists. An examination of their experience with art and the art therapy situation is presented. The second phase refers to some of the author's experiences with post session art work during her practicum with adolescents. The author's relevant experiences are reviewed and compared with the art therapists' who use their post session art work to clarify counter transference responses.
King, Beverly T. 1995
Art Therapy as Applied to the Ego Developmental Issues of Traumatic Child Abuse
This paper delineates a development of ideas, based on a literature search, which may be applied to future studies in art therapy concerning the ego developmental impact of traumatic child abuse.
The subject of child abuse is introduced through definitions of physical abuse, sexual abuse, child neglect and emotional abuse and neglect, as well as by a discussion of some common myths about child abuse. The traumatic impact of child abuse in terms of ego development damage is explored as well as the possible psychopathological impact of severely traumatic child abuse.
An analysis of several theoretical models asserts the "Traumagenic Dynamics" model as the most effective in terms of linking the effects of child abuse with the abusive environment. As a basis for empirical research, an attempt is made to establish a relationship between the "Traumagenic Dynamics" model and ego developmental levels by the incorporation of a "schema framework."
The exploration of art therapy research strongly supports that art therapy is able to address areas of psychological and interpersonal functioning relating to child abuse and therefore may promote ego development. In concluding, suggestions for future research are provided.
King, Beverly T. 1996
An Object Relations Approach to Art Therapy: A Case Study Exploring Treatment of Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder
This research paper is an exploration of an object relations approach to art therapy with a client who experienced traumatic object loss. This case study explores an art therapy treatment of an adult female psychiatric patient who has borderline personality disorder and had been a victim of child sexual abuse. An object relations approach recognizes the impact of early parent infant relations as essential to the healthy ego development of the child. Etiological factors of borderline personality disorder suggest the primary loss of the mother in early childhood. Other traumatic losses such as sexual abuse, loss of bodily functioning, and deaths or losses of significant people over a lifetime are experienced as the original maternal loss. Consideration is given to ways to facilitate object relations through the choice and use of art materials and the promotion of play.
Kirstein, Ali 2004
Healing the Wounds of History : an Exploration of Volkas' Dramatherapeutic Social Change Model
Dramathrapist Armand Volkas has been developing the first dramatherapeutic method geared towards cultural/ethnic/national groups in conflict. Healing the Wounds of History—The Acts of Reconciliation Project is a six phase dramatherapeutic model which Volkas conceptualized and continues to modify as a way to allow individuals to deconstruct and reconstruct their personal as well as cultural identity through the exploration of personal narrative. This innovative model has the ability to advance the applications of dramatherapy, addressing the emerging need to incorporate political and social factors into our evolving field.
According to Davis (2002), “In Armand's workshops, the enemy is unmasked, pain is shared and compassion is born. Reconciliation is celebrated through social action and creativity” (p.225). Healing the Wounds of History is the first paradigm within the field of dramatherapy that attempt to incorporate individuals' sense of historical and personal traumata by means of combining cognitive, embodied and expressive interventions. This groundbreaking model has been maturing over the past 15 years and has become a functional method in addressing the many implications that arise while exploring diverse, deeply rooted cultural conflicts.
Mr. Volkas is a true pioneer in the field of dramatherapy and it is my belief that his method ought to be taught in core courses as one of the foundations of our budding discipline. It is my hope that this research project will be among one of the preliminary initiations of this historical documentation and that Volkas' work will live beyond his own teaching is San Francisco, allowing every dramatherapist, dramatherapist-in-training and psychotherapist access to his methodology, wisdom and experience.
Kominsky, Reva 2006
Performance Art as a Healing Ritual for Self-Mutilators
This study examines the creation of performance art as a transformative therapeutic approach with persons who harm their own bodies. In order to explore potential avenues of this embodied therapeutic approach, the artist/researcher created a performance piece entitled “Borderland”. The piece represents a hermeneutic ‘dialogue' between the literature on self-mutilation and performance art and the researcher's own subjective and embodied creative process. A premise of this study is that in both performance art and the act of self-mutilation the body is the ‘borderland' between inner and outer realms. The body is also the prime means of communicating and making direct and tangible contact with both the self and the other. This ‘borderland' will be linked to the transitional space of ritual which both the performance artist and the self-mutilator creates, in part, to connect with, and integrate, lost performance artist and the self-mutilator creates, in part, to connect with, and integrate, lost dissociated parts of the self. Self-mutilation is analyzed here as an (often) unconscious creative attempt to transform experience in which a person has felt alienated, victimized, and violated, into a more connected, active, and empowered one. Performance art is discussed as a live art form that specifically seeks to create vital, unique spaces for those persons and experiences that are marginalized. Both self-mutilators and performance artists can be seen as attempting to carve out a space in which to connect with a sense of themselves and their authenticity. Performance art is suggested and explored here as a more conscious, creative, outlet in which the self-mutilating client can have the opportunity to shape and define another sort of space. In this space she or he can transform the experience of the isolated and objectified body into an artistic communication/connection between the body, artistic materials and the person(s) who will be her/his witness(es). Performance art is posited as a complete art-form in its blending and experimentation with multiple mediums, allowing the client to give voice to, and make connections between, disconnected and fragmented parts of the self. It is being suggested as a therapeutic frame in which the client can ‘play with' different objects and artistic mediums, in a collage-like, improvisational manner, as well as facilitating the creation of a transitional/play space, which may contain and express the various fragments of a self-mutilating client's internal world.
Krol, Mira R. 1989
The Tree: Its Meaning and Its Function in Art Therapy
The tree is a universal symbol very well rooted in human symbolic history. The patient in this art therapy case study chose to draw images of trees. To gain better understanding of this therapeutic process and especially of the tree representation symbolism, a definition, a Jungian psychological view, and an artistic consideration is presented. Furthermore, image formation, as an inherent part of the human experience, is examined.
Some form of the symbol of the tree has appeared in many different cultures and religions. Its meaning is basically related to life themes such as regeneration, death, and the Divine. In this paper the tree symbol is presented within a historical context to show its scope of existence and its importance in human history.
Furthermore, in the case study presented at the end of the paper, this ancient tree symbol was also brought about, spontaneously, by the patient in art therapy.
She used the tree symbol to work through some of her personal concerns and problems, as well as her relationship to the therapist in these sessions.
Kukurugya, Janet E. 1992
Feminine Imagery in the Artwork of an Eleven Year Old Girl with Learning Disabilities and a History of Deprivation and Abuse
This thesis addresses feminine imagery and its interrelationship with learning disabilities, deprivation, and abuse. A single case study is used. It explores the way in which feminine images may be seen in artwork and how they are influenced by the above mentioned areas of experience. Learning disabilities as such may be understood to reflect a neurological component, and deprivation and abuse, an emotional component. Archetypal images are seen to be the thread of connection allowing ideas of psychological significance to be communicated through a common language of symbols.
Research focuses on three discrete areas. The first area is that of feminine psychology, object relations theory and archetypal psychology. Learning disabilities are then viewed in light of both neurological and emotional etiologies. Finally, deprivation and abuse are researched from the standpoint of inflicted harm, taking the perception of the child into consideration. A synthesis of these three areas is used in examining the artwork of the case study. How the client's self-expression is influenced by these factors and how this affects the therapeutic process is of primary importance to the unfolding of the thesis.
Kuri, Erin 2007
Erik H. Erickson: A Valuable Resource for the Field of Art Therapy
The field of art therapy is still relatively new in comparison to other professional fields of mental health. The profession was influenced and developed by figures in the fields of art education, visual art, and psychoanalysis. Erik H. Erikson is a figure who was trained in all three of these areas; however, it seems that contemporary art therapists are unaware of how valuable his life and written contributions are to the field of art therapy.
The aim of this research paper is to demonstrate why the life and work of Erikson remains a useful resource to the current field of art therapy. This paper explores the historical context surrounding the life of Erikson, his training in various fields, his difficult experience trying to choose an identity between being an artist and a psychoanalyst, and the written works that he contributed later in his life. As well, Joan Erikson's influence on his work has been examined. Following historical-documentary methodology, this research has been conducted by synthesizing various sources on topics such as: German Expressionism; art education; psychoanalysis; the history of art therapy; the life and work of Erik Erikson; and the life and work of Joan Erikson.
This research demonstrates that Erikson's training and experiential knowledge in visual art influenced his clinical observations and written works throughout his life. By examining the ways in which he perceived his work through the eyes of an artist, current art therapists may be inspired to utilize his achievements as a model for their own practice.
Kuska, Ilana 1990
High School Students Interacting with Video Art
Video art is an internationally recognized art form. Its evolution over the last 25 years has been shaped by the artists working in this medium and by the development of modern technology. Video art can be integrated into the senior high school curriculum as an interactive medium. This thesis describes the experience of a senior art class and teacher interacting with three video tapes. Transcripts which document the students' responses precede the text. Four main sections provide the history of video art, biographical information on 3 featured artists, methodology, procedure and analysis of transcripts. Includes video reviews, glossary of video terms, artists' data and listing of video distributors.
Labelle, Monique 1994
Contribution de l'art thérapie a l'évaluation des mécanismes de défense et de leur impact sur la santé mentale
Dans ce mémoire, nous présentons un bref aperçu des hypothèses et des concepts métapsychologiques relatifs aux différentes étapes de l'évolution libidinale, au phénomène de I'entropie lié à la consommation excessive d'énergies psychiques, à la séquence temporelle des processus primaires et secondaires, à la direction et à la magnitude des forces et des contre forces constituant les mécanismes de défense, et enfin, au phénomène de la régression.
Ces divers points de vue constituent différents critères d'évaluation des mécanismes de défense. Des classifications sont établies à partir de mesures relatives à la complexité, à la qualité, à la quantité, à la réversibilité des mécanismes impliqués de même qu'à des niveaux différents d'adaptabilité. II semble qu'à certains de ces niveaux, l'individu utilise une variété de défenses qui faussent la réalité à des degrés divers.
Dans ce mémoire, l'identification et l'évaluation des mécanismes de défense privilégiés par le sujet s'effectuent à partir de la technique de l'art-thérapie et de données provenant d'entrevues cliniques.
Labrecque, Marc 1991
L'art thérapie et l'image dans la perspective de l'identité psychosexuelle
Dans ce travail je me propose de présenter les quatre théories principales du développement de l'identité psychosexuelle. À l'intérieur de chacune de ces grandes théories il existe plusieurs variations et sous théories. Étant donné l'immensité du matériel, je me limiterai à expliquer les grandes lignes de pensées psychologiques à la base des quatre théories du développement psychosexuel. La première théorie du développement psychosexuelle appartient à Sigmund Freud et est présentée au début du travail. Chacune des trois autres théories qui suivent, constituent une réponse critique de la théorie précédente. La dernière théorie du développement psychosexuel présentée est également la plus contemporaine et la plus globale dans son approche.
La seconde partie du travail consiste en une analyse des images et de la relation thérapeutique d'un cas d'art thérapie, pour illustrer l'application des quatre théories du développement de l'identité psychosexuelle. L'analyse du cas d'art thérapie ne constitue qu'un exemple de l'applicabilité des théories mentionnées précédemment et non une analyse en profondeur des thèmes particuliers de la patiente. Je désire également démontrer que l'analyse de l'identité psychosexuelle est possible par le biais de l'art thérapie et que le concept de l'identité psychosexuelle est toujours présent dans les thèmes développés en art thérapie. C'est pour cette raison que la patiente choisie ne souffre primordialement pas de troubles de l'identité psychosexuelle. Celle ci est une résidente d'un centre de réadaptation, elle souffre de paralysie cérébrale, de déficience intellectuelle et de schizophrénie de type paranoïaque.
Labrosse, Sylvie 2001
Nature du changement thérapeutique et toxicomanie Approches éclectique et art thérapeutiques
Cette recherche s'intéresse aux différentes conceptualisations élaborées par les trois grandes approches psychothérapeutiques qui sont l'approche psychanalytique, béhaviorale et humaniste sur la nature du changement thérapeutique. La présentation de ces concepts permettra d'introduire et de clarifier leur apport individuel à la perspective plus contemporaine de l'approche éclectique ou de l'intégration dans ce domaine.
La question du changement thérapeutique est des plus pertinentes lorsqu'elle s'adresse aux populations aux prises avec des problèmes de toxicomanie étant donné le haut taux de rechutes pour lequel elles sont reconnues. Le modèle transthéorique de changement (MTT) s'est tout particulièrement penché sur les défis qui se posent dans de tels cas. La présentation de ce modèle permettra la mise en lumière des orientations théoriques et empiriques de plusieurs spécialistes en art thérapie s'étant prononcés sur cette problématique. La comparaison entre ces orientations et le MTT fournira l'occasion d'évaluer comment l'art thérapie a contribué par le passé à créer les conditions nécessaires à l'obtention du changement thérapeutique et peut continuer de le faire en s'adaptant aux approches considérées comme les plus efficaces en cette matière.
Lachance, Isabelle 2002
How Group Art Therapy Helps Conduct Disordered Children Improve their Social Skills
This research paper takes a look at how group art therapy enables children with conduct disorders and other behavioral problems to increase their social skills. I begin with a look at the literature on conduct disorders and describe this disorder as well as how it manifests in children. I go on to investigate the art therapy literature on groups and look at the various aspects of artmaking in group situations that help children develop important skills.
The second part of this research is dedicated to a case study of a group of children with conduct disorders and other behavioral problems, who took part in weekly group art therapy sessions over a period of seven months. I describe their process improvements throughout the course of the treatment, and attempt to explain what important factors enabled the children to improve their social skills.
Lacroix, Louise 1995
Art therapy at the service of functional dyspepsia and other gastrointestinal disorders: Dream or reality?
The evaluation of psychotherapeutic approaches within a research project on functional dyspepsia is the basis of this research. Since this disability is classified under somatisation disorders, a literature review pertaining to psychosomatics is included.
The concepts of alexithymia and somatothymia are also explored and enable to better seize the language of the body and emotional postures. Therefore, a nonverbal approach through art therapy is briefly depicted, as well as the process.
To supplement, partial results of this research are presented as submitted papers, both in French and English, describing the purpose and beneficial applications of art therapy offered to a patient with functional dyspepsia.
L'art thérapie au service de la dyspepsie fonctionnelle et des troubles gastriques : Rêve ou réalité?
L'évaluation d'approches psychothérapeutiques à l'intérieur d'un projet de recherche sur la dyspepsie fonctionnelle est à la base de cette présente recherche. Ce malaise étant classé parmi les troubles de somatisation, un compte rendu de la littérature concernant la psychosomatique y est présenté.
Les concepts d'alexithymie et de somatothymie sont aussi explorés et permettent de mieux saisir le langage du corps et des émotions. Ainsi, une approche nonverbale, par l'art thérapie, est brièvement exposée, de même que ces processus.
Pour compléter, des résultats partiels de cette recherche sont présentés, sous forme d'articles de journaux, en français et en anglais, décrivant l'utilisation et les applications bénéfiques de l'art thérapie, auprès d'une patiente souffrant de dyspepsie fonctionnelle.
Lamarre, Marie-France 1993
“ Nina”, ou le refus de la féminité - Étude de cas explorant les causes possibles d'un problème de l'identité de genre au moyen de l'art thérapie
Cette thèse propose l'exploration de l'histoire et des productions visuelles de Nina (pseudonyme), 8 1/2 ans, aux prises avec un problème de l'identite de genre. Après avoir présenté une analyse rétrospective des théories du développement de l'identité de genre féminine depuis Freud le concept de la différenciation de genre, élaboré par Irene Fast (1984), sera retenu et utilisé comme point de référence pour comprendre la nature du problème de Nina et suivre son évolution vers une réappropriation de sa féminité.
Le modèle de Fast suggère que l'identité de genre se développe selon un principe de différenciation psychologique. Il comprend d'abord une phase ou le narcissisme prévaut et où la notion distincte d'appartenir à un sexe spécifique n'existe pas. Survient alors un renoncement au narcissisme, qui, entre autres, incite la fille (de même que le garçon) à ne conserver dans son organisation psychique que l'aspect féminin. Toutefois, la présence d'une difficulté à renoncer au narcissisme peut perturber le cours normal de la différenciation de genre. Dans cette optique, et à partir des spécificités présentées par Nina, l'auteure propose que le non renoncement au narcissisme contenu dans la relation mère enfant peut engendrer une difficulté à délaisser celui qui est lié au genre, et conséquemment faire obstacle à 1'évolution normale de l'identité de genre.
Par ailleurs, ce mémoire offre un aperçu des manifestations visuelles des problèmes de l'identité de genre féminine et incite à l'exploration et à la recherche dans un domaine qui n'a été jusqu'ici que très peu abordé par les art thérapeutes.
Lamy, Yvon 1986
A Study of Collage and Assemblage as a Therapeutic Tool in Art Therapy
A brief retrospective on the history of collage retraces its origins and its development. Three concepts are singled out and their function serves to analyze a sampling of collages from different groups of patients undergoing art therapy. How these functions act as facilitators towards the goals of therapy is the focus of the analysis.
A literature review describes different approaches which are utilized by professionals in the clinical use of collage.
LaPan, Francis 2001
L'adolescent à problèmes multiples souffrant de troubles psychosomatiques
Cette recherche veut mettre en valeur le potentiel de l'art thérapie, et démontrer que cette discipline offre une alternative valable pour aider l'adolescent souffrant de troubles psychosomatiques.
Cette étude examine d'abord le développement psychocorporel et psychosexuel, de l'enfance à l'adolescence, afin de bien comprendre la place et le rôle psychodynamique du corps dans les troubles psychosomatiques. Un examen des diverses conceptions symptomatologiques et étiologiques nous permet de mieux saisir ce qui distingue les approches cliniques en psychanalyse, en psychosomatique et en psychopathologie. L'ensemble des indications psychothérapeutiques issues de ces disciplines nous aide à mieux cerner celles qui sauraient prendre en compte les vulnérabilités de l'adolescent à l'intérieur d'une approche multimodale en art thérapie.
Une approche «généraliste» en psychosomatique est ensuite appliquée à une étude de cas concernant un adolescent à problèmes multiples souffrant de troubles psychosomatiques. Cette étude de cas approfondie est divisée en trois partie : la description bio psycho sociale de la problématique, l'examen de la relation et du processus thérapeutique de l'art thérapie et enfin, l'analyse de la production d'images exécutées en art thérapie. Un cadre de référence psychanalytique est appliqué à l'interprétation du processus thérapeutique et a l'analyse des images. L'analyse des phénomènes de mentalisation, de régression et de somatisation à travers un processus thérapeutique impliquant la médiation par l'image, nous permet de mieux comprendre comment l'art thérapie peut aider l'adolescent souffrant de troubles psychosomatique.
Lapan, Francis 2001
L'Adolescent à problèmes multiples souffrant de troubles psychosomatiques
This research wants to put in value the potential of art therapy, and demonstrate that this discipline is a valuable alternative to help the adolescent suffering of psychosomatic troubles.
This study first examines psychosexual development from infancy to adolescence, in order to better understand the psychodynamic role of the body inside of psychosomatic troubles. The examination of various symptomatologic and etiologic conceptions permits us to better seize what distinguishes clinical approach in psychoanalysis, in psychosomatic and in psychopathology. The overall psychotherapeutic indications stemming from these disciplines helps us to better define the ones that could take in count the adolescent's vulnerability i aside a multi-modal approach in art therapy.
A « generalist » approach in psychosomatic is then applied to a study case concerning an adolescent with multiple problems suffering of psychosomatic troubles. This study case is divided in three parts: a biopsycho-social description of the problematic ; the examination of the therapeutic relation and process of art therapy ; and finally : the analysis of images created in art therapy. A psychoanalytical frame of reference is applied to the interpretation of therapeutic process and images. The analysis of « mentalisation », «regression » and « somatisation » phenomenon, through therapeutic process implying mediation by the image, permits us to better understand how art therapy can help the adolescent suffering of psychosomatic troubles.
Laperrière, Geneviève 1998
Comment l'oeuf peut il, par ses propriétés physiques et symboliques, servir de catalyseur intégratif dans un processus thérapeutique par l'art?
Mon projet de recherche a pour principal but l'exploration du potentiel de l'oeuf comme matière première dans un processus créatif et thérapeutique. Ma recherche comprend l'étude historique de l'utilisation de l'oeuf comme objet quotidien et objet d'art. Nous découvrirons les mythes, traditions et croyances reliés à diverses cultures, autant sur le plan folklorique que sacré.
Nous étudierons la structure physique et symbolique de l'oeuf. Il sera question de comparer l'oeuf à la cellule, au corps, au langage et à l'atome tout en explorant ses valeurs symboliques et analogiques. Nous verrons brièvement les théories de Guillaume et Bohr qui viendront appuyer l'hypothèse que l'oeuf incarne à la fois la création et le mystère.
Une dernière partie de ce travail comporte une recherche personnelle axée sur l'exploration artistique de l'oeuf comme matière primaire. Elle permettra de comprendre et d'intégrer l'essence du travail créatif mis en perspective par des images témoignant des dynamiques et des processus que l'oeuf engendre.
Lapinski, Danuta 2002
Defining, Assessing, Exploring and Improving Self Esteem through Drama Therapy
The following paper describes and summarizes my qualitative research study. The purpose of the research study was to observe and record the effectiveness of a personally developed drama therapy research method for two purposes: firstly, to discover whether the term "self esteem" is a personally subjective phenomenon; secondly, to use the research process itself as a therapeutic tool to improve adolescent girls' self esteem. The drama therapy approach used in my study was adapted from an art therapy research method created by Mala Betensky. My approach involves a therapeutic application of guiding the participants to define, assess, explore and improve their own self esteem.
The research paper includes a description of how the drama therapy method was adapted from the phenomenological art therapy research approach. It also contains a literature review that discusses current theories and approaches of improving self esteem. In addition, the paper describes a newly developed drama therapy method of application and two case studies that demonstrate the process. Two adolescent girls voluntarily participated in the research study, by providing their artwork and voice recordings transcribed in the text. Finally, the paper concludes with the results of the study and a personal commentary.
Laramée, Murielle 1988
Theoretical implications of the Therapeutic Aspect of Art-Making in Art Therapy from the Perspective of Creativity
Art therapy involves the mingling of both art and of psychoanalytic disciplines.
This thesis examines the role and the function art may take in art therapy when creativity is given central importance.
In the actual process of creating something, conflicts are experienced and inner feelings take a form. This process, which has inherent healing properties, has its origin in the mother infant dyad where innate feelings of love and hate seek integration.
In infancy, the conflict is resolved through creative imagination in playing, a process experienced from birth onwards and best expressed through art.
It is believed that by engaging into art as the infant engaged himself/herself into play, a psychical synthesis of conflicting inner feelings unfolds.
Larouche, Agathe 1992
Le souffle dans l'art thérapie : application aux problèmes respiratoires
Cette thèse est une étude de la maladie respiratoire, des moyens thérapeutiques appliqués, et de l'impact de l'art thérapie dans ce type de pathologie.
Le portrait sera tracé à partir des littératures existantes dans ce champ très spécifique de la maladie respiratoire: champ où il y a atteinte de la psyché et du soma.
Les éléments pathologiques et psychologiques reliés à cette maladie seront examinés en fonction de la psychologie, de la psychanalyse, de la psychophysiologie, de la biologie, du social et de la symbolique.
L'art thérapie chez deux patients souffrant de maladie respiratoire chronique se joint à cette thématique.
L'art est un moyen thérapeutique permettant au souffle d'être, lieu où tous les souffles de l'être humain peuvent s'extérioriser: souffle de vie, souffle de l'intérieur, souffle d'expression, souffle d'harmonie, souffle du chaos.
Lay, Ronald P.M.H. 1997
Implementing Group Art Therapy within the Residential Setting: Promoting Effective Communication between Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Caregivers
Current trends have encouraged adults with intellectual disabilities to actively participate in their own treatment planning and goal setting. Art therapy is one of many accessible treatment modalities for this population.
Art therapy has been successfully received and implemented within day programs, recreational settings and hospitals servicing adults with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of the present paper is to propose a group art therapy treatment procedure within the residential setting with the inclusion of caregivers as part of the process. Increased effective communication between clients and caregivers has the potential to increase levels of self esteem and quality of life.
Two primary questions that will be addressed are: 1) Can the goals of art therapy be achieved, enhanced and maintained by providing art therapy within the clients' own home? And 2) Will adults with intellectual disabilities, engaged in group art therapy, demonstrate increased levels of self esteem and quality of life when their caregivers are part of the therapeutic process? These questions and the implications of moving group art therapy from the office to the home will be investigated by means of a literature review.
Lay, Ronald P.M.H. 1998
The Therapeutic Relationship: Its Significance in Providing Individual Art Therapy to Preadolescent Boys Diagnosed pith Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Integral to the individual art therapeutic process is the relationship that develops between therapist and client. Insight of the evoking relationship is enhanced when issues of transference and countertransference are identified, examined and carefully monitored. Investing in post session imagery allows the art therapist to process the therapy session and to investigate one's countertransference as experienced while providing art therapy.
The purpose of the present paper is to explore the therapeutic relationships developed in individual art therapy sessions with me, a male art therapy intern, and preadolescent boys, diagnosed as having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ADHD, transference, countertransference and post session imagery will be investigated by means of a literature review. Additionally, the therapeutic relationship will be examined through three case vignettes. Children with behavior difficulties pose certain challenges to the therapeutic relationship; it is the therapist's responsibility to facilitate the therapeutic process in order to address these challenges. This is the focus of the paper.
Leclerc, Josée 1991
L'inconscient du texte – Proposition d'un mode de lecture l'image en art-thérapie basée sur la première topique freudienne et la relecture de Freud par Jacques Lacan
Ce mémoire définit la spécificité d'un mode de lecture prenant en considération l'inconscient du texte et propose l'application de celui ci à l'image en art thérapie. Issu de l'alliance structuraliste et littéraire qui prévaut en France, le mode de lecture psychanalytique présente dans cette thèse, s'appuie sur la relecture de Freud par Jacques Lacan et sur les concepts inhérents a la première topique freudienne, principalement localises autour de I'inconscient et du refoulement.
Mode de repérage ou de déchiffrement des effets de l'inconscient, la lecture proposée se construit d'après le postulat selon lequel le texte qu'il soit texte de l'humain, discours ou image est à la fois voile et support d'un refoulé faisant retour. L'image en art thérapie peut elle être considérée en tant que surface propre à recevoir cette inscription? Est il possible de voir le déplacement ou la condensation à l'oeuvre dans l'image, dans la représentation d'un thème de moindre intensité ou dans l'amalgame de plusieurs éléments visuels en un seul? C'est ce que nous tentons de démontrer dans ce mémoire.
Un regard posé sur le texte, freudien et lacanien, fait d'abord apparaître l'imbrication de la pratique dans le style de la théorie, cristallisant ainsi l'orientation générale de ce mémoire. Le contexte d'où émane cette modalité de lecture est ensuite défini, selon les axes diachronique et synchronique, ce qui précise la théorie lacanienne du signifiant.
Ayant suivi Freud sur les voies d'accès aux productions psychiques qu'il dégage, nous réfutons la correspondance entre la formation de l'inconscient et l'accès au langage induite par I'axiome lacanien de l'inconscient structure comme un langage et prenons en considération l'antériorité du langage les premières traces ou inscriptions dans la formation de l'inconscient. Les notions freudiennes de l'étayage et de I'après-coup fournissent le support permettant de préciser la condition du refoulement constitutif de l'inconscient. La reconstruction de l'exposé art thérapeutique à laquelle nous procédons pour en extraire le sens, construite selon le modèle de l'étayage et de l'après coup, fait des lors apparaître le texte/image en art thérapie en tant que re présentation étayée sur des préfigurations issues d'expériences antérieures qu'elle contient, exposées et voilées.
Légaré, Denise 1997
Réhabilitation du lien d'attachement par l'art-thérapie
Ce travail de recherche explore la problématique de la réhabilitation du lien d'attachement à travers l'art thérapie dans un modèle dyadique père enfant. Il vise à illustrer la relation d'objet du langage somatique, l'encoprésie, afin d'établir sa signification et son mode relationnel. Je définis le concept du lien d'attachement de Bowlby et les conditions nécessaires au développement des schèmes de ce phénomène. Par la suite, j'élabore les qualités de 1'attachement afin de situer le type et le comportement d'un enfant ayant un problème encoprétique. Dans le cadre thérapeutique de l'art thérapie, je précise la nécessité d'une expérience ludique et la stimulation sensori motrice par la théorie de l'aire intermédiaire de Winnicott et la théorie du « Moi peau » de Didier Anzieu. Ces concepts aideront à élucider le phénomène de création et l'analogie à la relation primaire mère-nourrisson lors d'une relation thérapeutique à travers l'art. La référence au vécu émotionnel permettra de faire une lecture métaphorique des oeuvres de la dyade, de retracer historiquement le cheminement thérapeutique de leur enracinement du lien d'attachement lors d'une relation objectale.
Légaré, Denise 1998
Réhabilitation de la mentalisation - La reconstruction des objets mentaux du corps somatisant par l'art thérapies
Ce travail de recherche explore, à travers la relation d'objet et la théorie du trauma, la problématique de la désorganisation psychique chez un sujet somatisant. L'approche somato affective et phénoménologique de la plainte somatique par l'art met en lumière le travail mémoriel d'images inconscientes traumatiques et des traces mnésiques sensorielles par le biais du champ tactile et visuel de la symbolisation. À travers le concept d'excitation, ce travail démontre l'effet régulateur du travail de symbolisation et des échanges verbaux sur les excitations démesurées, internes ou externes, du sujet. Cette recherche met en évidence l'utilisation de procédés autocalmants comme mode compulsif et répétitif du registre sensori moteur et la relation avec une faille du système pare excitation de l'appareil psychique du sujet. Sur le plan psychodynamique, l'analyse des oeuvres démontre la fragilité narcissique du sujet par l'interrnédiaire de la signification symbolique de l'image du corps. Le travail de construction et de reconstruction du symptôme somatique élucide l'effet de réappropriation de l'histoire du corps, mais aussi l'amélioration du travail psychique. La fonction onirique du travail de symbolisation démontre le déblocage de la mentalisation par le mécanisme de projection identification qui fait se transformer lesdits symptômes errants en « objets mentaux », et par la boucle de projection introjection qui fait redécouvrir des «objets mentaux » gratifiants. L'effet pragmatique de ces projections visibles de l'intériorité du sujet élucide 1'effet thérapeutique sur la compréhension de la maladie et à donner du sens à l'identité du somatisant. L'expression de la somatisation par l'art démontre l'effet de rencontre et l'articulation entre la psyché et le soma.
Lemzoudi, Yasmine-Maria 2006
Migration: Acculturation process, cultural identity development, and art therapy imagery of adolescent migrants
The migration process implies a redefinition of one's cultural identity as well as exposure to acculturative stress linked to the process of acculturation. This research project intends to investigate the art of adolescents that have undergone the process of migration. It has for aim to describe cultural identity, migration, and the acculturation process, and it will also discuss the implication of these issues for art therapy. These issues will be related to the imagery made by adolescent migrants during their adaptation process, which will be illustrated through two case vignettes. These will portray how the migration experience may be expressed through art and clinical exchanges.
The North American context is a welcoming ground for a variety of migrant individuals and groups; the resulting blending of cultures is in perpetual expansion in this particular society which renders research that tackles issues of culture and relocation invaluable. Current art therapy research has discussed the importance of cultural identity, however, discussion of symbolism and imagery related to cultural identity and the migration and post-migration process is scarce. Research underlining how these issues may be worked through the clinical context and how they are expressed in the art may prove valuable for art therapists who intend to work with these issues or with a migrant population.
Leotta, Louise 2008
Exploring Distancing and Communication in Drama Therapy:
A Case Study of a Mother-Daughter Dyad
This qualitative case study investigates how the manipulation of distancing as a basis for the choice of action-oriented drama therapy interventions used in a clinical setting can help facilitate communication between a mother and her at-risk adolescent daughter. The therapy incorporates two phases where the mother and daughter work individually, before reconnecting for dyadic therapy. R. Landy's (1983) concept of distancing is manipulated to give the mother and daughter opportunities to experience communication at a level of aesthetic distance so as to promote change in communications both inside and outside of their therapy. Y. Silverman's (2004) Story Within Process is one of the drama therapy approaches utilized. The clients explore the metaphors in their stories at a safe distance and eventually connect the challenges in their stories with personal issues and communication problems. Strength-based and resiliency approaches are embedded in the principles and philosophies of drama therapy and are used to empower strength and foster resiliency in the dyad. The developmental stages of adolescence and motherhood are explored with a particular focus on separation anxiety, relationships, identity, self-concept, and communication. The adolescent's at-risk behaviours of self-harm, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress are specifically addressed. Changes in mother-daughter communications and at-risk behaviours are highlighted.
Lesage, Agathe 2007
Images as Gates to Meaning: Art therapy and Emerging Adults' search for their calling, a Theoretical Inquiry
If the question of finding one's calling, or one's most meaningful path in life is considered central in existential psychology, it seems particularly relevant for this segment of the population which developmental psychology calls emerging adults, who are faced with the challenging task of defining their priorities and making life decisions engaging their future. In our times of increased possibilities and decreased models to guide one's choices, new structures are needed to support emerging adults in this critical life transition and allow their search for their place in the world to be framed as a conscious and purposeful process, toward personal development.
Art Therapy has shown art-making to be a privileged avenue toward self-knowledge and meaning-making. In this study, I propose to lay the theoretical foundations for the implementation of a future art-based exploratory program designed to assist young people in their search for calling.
Defining meaning as encounter, I draw on existential and archetypal literature to explore how the artistic process, as phenomenological and imaginal engagement with images, can facilitate the emergence and deepening of personal meaning, hence contributing to one's psychological unfolding. Emphasizing the aesthetic dimension of the art experience, I examine how the creative process as aesthetic practice can allow emerging adults to develop aesthetic sensitivity and creative competences which can be used in their daily lives to help them find their way in the world.
By trying to integrate the active ingredients or art therapy into an educational format of intervention, I hope to bring the benefits of our therapeutic practice beyond its traditional treatment mandate, to serve the more educative and cultural purpose of fostering young adults' development toward a more responsible participation in the world's unfolding.
Lévesque, Anne-Marie 2001
Regard sur la période pré génitale à partir d'une intégration des perspectives kleinienne et jungienne: Étude de cas en art thérapie
Haeckel postule que l'ontogenèse, processus d'évolution biologique du foetus, récapitule en neuf mois les trois milliards d'années de la phylogenèse. Solié reprend cette idée de Haeckel mais au niveau psychologique, ce qui l'amène à défendre l'idée que le développement normal du nourrisson, 1'ontopsychogenèse, récapitule la phylopsychogenèse dans un processus de différenciation et d'individuation particularisé par une récapitulation phantasmatique des mutations protérogénésiques, l'hominisation et l'humamsation. Alors que la psychologie de Jung est basée sur les phantasmes de nature collective, représentations de la phylopsychogenèse agissant sur l'individu contemporain, la vision kleinienne, quant à elle, offre une compréhension des phantasmes du nourrisson et se situe donc au niveau de l'individu même. À première vue, ces deux grandes théories peuvent paraître antinomiques, voire incompatibles. Le but de cette recherche est de mettre en écosystème ces deux théories, en démontrant qu'elles peuvent être conçues non seulement en complémentarité, mais aussi en interrelation active. Nous postulons que la rencontre des approches kleinienne et jungienne offre la possibilité de fournir une perspective plus globale de la psyché humaine. Une étude de cas en art thérapie est présentée pour illustrer cette hypothèse. À cette occasion, les phantasmes inconscients de nature archaïque d'une patiente suicidaire seront examinés par le biais de ses dessins, de ses rêves et de ses métaphores verbales.
Lévesque, Francine 1996
Defense Mechanisms in Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Art Therapy
The concept of defense mechanisms is a widely researched topic in psychology. Given the long standing interest on the subject, this paper intends to present a selective literary review of the relevant psychoanalytic formulations and approaches to understanding defense mechanisms according to both drive and the object relations theory of Melanie Klein, as an introduction to their formulations and applications in psychoanalytic art therapy.
A look into the controversies surrounding their adaptive/maladaptive (coping, pathogenic or pathological) functions, and developmental perspectives, will be reviewed. The Freudian and Kleinian concepts of phantasy and of symbol formation in relation to defense organization, will lead to a review of some of the most prominent names (both historical and contemporary) in psychoanalytic art therapy. These will be reviewed in light of their use of the concept of defense and how it informs their formulations of psychodynamics. Since their respective approaches vary considerably, the rudiments of a conceptual approach will be proposed in the discussion.
Lévesque, Francine 1998
Parent Child Creative Encounters: Experiential Art Therapy and Attachment Theory
Social Services in this part of the world are increasingly turning towards preventive aspects of care, hence the recent development of infant psychiatry. Given the developmental importance of the early attachment bonds between primary caregivers and their offspring's, clinical work aimed at adjusting a difficult relationship between the pair, is a mode of intervention with much potential. In this vein of thought, art therapy based on attachment theory offers a potent clinical approach for at-risk dyads, and is the subject of this research endeavor.
This paper leads the reader through the recent theoretical findings on attachment theory, and the many controversies surrounding a theory in search of an acknowledged separate identity from its psychoanalytic roots. Then through an understanding of the creative possibilities of play and the development of symbolic competence, the reader ventures into the historical and contemporary findings of dyad and family art therapy. Finally an experiential art therapy method is proposed and illustrated by a clinically relevant case study.
Levitte, Mélanie 2008
Une étude qualitative des perceptions sociales de la communauté face à des jeunes adolescents d'une école secondaire spécialisée en troubles graves du comportement, à l'aide d'une performance ethnographique
La présente recherche traite de la création unique d'un ethnodrame au sujet de
jeunes adolescents présentant des troubles graves du comportement. Il est également question d'étudier comment cette méthode, combinée avec d'autres techniques comme le théâtre playback et la thérapie par le théâtre, peut avoir une incidence sur les perceptions sociales de la communauté, du public, face à ce type de sous-culture. La façon dont ces adolescents perçoivent leur vie est à la source de la création d'un script de théâtre. Un débat entre les spectateurs, les acteurs et le chercheur a lieu lors d'une discussion post-performance. Une remise en question des perceptions sociales vis-à-vis ce type d'adolescents et des thèmes sociaux alors abordés est envisagée comme principale visée et questionnement de cette recherche. Il s'est avéré que certains spectateurs ont exprimé un changement clair dans leur perception. De façon générale, la stimulation de la réflexion dans le public a été constatée. Beaucoup de spectateurs ont donné des suggestions pertinentes quant à une application future de cette méthode. Les jeunes, les acteurs et les spectateurs ont adopté un rôle de co-chercheurs. Bien que cette méthode complexe présente bien des défis au niveau de son application pratique, celle-ci a eu un impact positif et mobilisateur important chez tous les participants et se présente comme une méthode efficace de recherche-action orientée vers la communauté.
Levitte, Mélanie 2008
Une étude qualitative des perceptions sociales de la communauté face à des jeunes adolescents d'une école secondaire spécialisée en troubles graves du comportement, à l'aide d'une performance ethnographique
This research is about creating an ethnodrama on at-risk youth. This project was about studying how this method, combined with other techniques like playback theatre and drama therapy, could have an impact on the audience's social perceptions regarding this type of subculture. The way these adolescents think and perceive their life represents the core of the script. A post-performance discussion between audience members, the researcher and the actors took place. With this discussion it was hoped there would be a change in the audience's perceptions. Some of them clearly verbalized a change. In general, an important stimulation of their thoughts regarding youth and themes of the play was observed. A lot of them gave meaningful suggestions regarding future applications of this method. Youth, actors, and audience members took an active role as co-researchers in this project. Although this complex method presented many practical challenges, it still had a strong, positive impact as a research action directed towards the community.
Lin, Chia-Wen 2007
The Most Dangerous Place I've been to That's Not on the Map: An Autoethnographic Performance Research on the Identity Negotiation of a Drama Therapy Intern
The intention of this study is to investigate my subjective experience of identity negotiation during my second year drama therapy practicum. Framed within the personality and social structure perspective, identity negotiation can be defined as the process by which people strive to manage aspects of their identity. Using an arts-based autoethnography performance as the mode of inquiry, I incorporated subjective experience, arts and performance both to produce and present data. An embodied personal narrative is created and the multiple layered meanings of the experience were communicated through a performance of movement narrative coupled with ritual and video arts, which is recorded and attached in DVD format.
The performance has awakened the awareness of identity negotiation and feelings associated with it for the performer and the audience. I suggest that the concept of identity negotiation could be used as a reference point for future drama therapy students to reflect on intern experience.
Linhares, Sylvie 2006
Art Therapy and Lived Experience of Diabetes
The following paper, utilizing a phenomenological methodology, presents the experiences of four adolescents living with diabetes mellitus. The primary research question explored the following: through a phenomenological art therapy process, how do adolescents living with diabetes mellitus cope with and emotionally encounter the experience of living with diabetes? Diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness, which has both physical and psychological implications. The qualitative analysis of the verbatim transcripts generated the following four themes: diabetes management, interpersonal aspects, challenges, and coping strategies. These could be further reduced to the essence of diabetes mellitus requires a high level of self-care, which introduces interpersonal and intra-personal challenges, which induces both healthy and unhealthy coping mechanisms. Art making and the artwork facilitated discussion within the group. The artwork supported many of the quotes, but exhibited some incongruence, as well as allowing an outlet for aspects of living with diabetes mellitus to be expressed yet not verbalized.
Lipadatova, Olga 2002
How Group Art Therapy Helps to Improve Mutual Interaction between Mothers and Their Infants
The present inquiry investigates how interaction between mothers and their infants in families experiencing gross difficulties in parent child relations could be improved through a group art therapy. I describe and discuss the group process with the focus on my work with one particular dyad, and the changes in communication, which occurred as a result of the dyad's participation in the art therapy groups.
The review of the literature on various aspects of infant development sets the theoretical frame for an art therapy dyadic work as a form of early prevention of later problematic behaviors and disorders, which begin within the first few years of child's life and could be determined through observations over infant parent interaction.
The present inquiry examines how, through a consistent frame, an alignment between the therapist and the participant, and pleasant experiences, art therapy helps to develop attunement, responsiveness, and social skills of both mothers and their infants, and in this way increases mutual communications between mothers and their children. It shows some of the advantages of the application of art therapy such as a non didactic way to educate mothers, allowing them to lessen responses to the intervention.
This study could make a valid contribution in the development of the clinical methods directed at the improvement of interactions between mothers and their infants in families experiencing difficulties in parent child relations. It could also make a contribution in the development of the treatment of the early signs of different disorders in early childhood. I see as one of the advantages of art therapy its flexibility and relatively low cost comparing to other treatment modalities.
Lipadatova, Olga 2002
How group Art Therapy helps to improve mutual interaction between mother and their infants
Cette étude évalue la contribution potentielle de la thérapie de groupe par les arts à l'amélioration de l'intéraction entre mères et enfants dans des familles sujettes à des difficultés majeures au niveau des relations parent enfant. Je présente le processus à partir de mon travail avec une dyade en particulier, et les changements survenus dans la communication d'une dyade lors de la thérapie de groupe par les arts.
Une revue de la littérature touchant sur le développement de l'enfant établi dans un cadre théorique pour la thérapie par les arts en milieu dyadique pour la prévention des comportements et désordres problématiques adultes, lesquels originent au début de la vie d'un enfant et pourraient être identifiés par l'observation des interactions parent enfant.
Cette étude examine le rôle de la thérapie par les arts dans le développement de l'éveil, l'attention, et les habiletés sociales des mères et de leurs enfants. Cette étude démontre certains des bénéfices liés à l'utilisation de la thérapie par les arts, tel un moyen non didactique d'éduquer les mères, leur permettant de mieux accepter l'intervention.
Cette étude pourrait apporter une contribution valide au développement des méthodes cliniques visant à l'amélioration des interactions entre mères et enfants dans des familles souffrant de difficultés au niveau des relations parent enfant. Cette étude pourrait aussi contribuer au développement du traitement des signes avant coureurs de troubles variés lors de la jeune enfance. J'identifie la flexibilité et le coût relativement bas par rapport aux autres types courants de traitement comme des avantages importants de la thérapie par les arts.
Little, Sarah Lyn 2007
An Exploration of the Ways in which Art Therapy Complements and Enhances Cognitive-Behavior Therapies in the Rehabilitation of Violent Offenders
Violent crime is a serious problem in North America. Most violent offenders have been victims of violence themselves, predisposing them to inflict harm upon others. The mental health needs of these individuals are immense; helping them restore a sense of humanity and decrease their likelihood of recidivism is a challenging and important goal. As such, rehabilitation programs for this population must be carefully considered. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT) is well established within prisons. Although it is a less established approach within corrections, art therapy has also been shown as an effective intervention in the rehabilitation of violent offenders.
There are art therapists who integrate CBT approaches in their practice, however, these two therapeutic treatment models have traditionally been perceived as somewhat antithetical. This research seeks to explore the links between these approaches, illustrating the ways in which art therapy facilitates and enhances the goals of CBT. The aim of this study is to contribute to an awareness regarding the importance of offering the most effective, balanced, and rich treatment possible to violent offenders in order to prevent violent behavior.
Lu, Lucy 2007
"I don't know where is me": Lost and Found in Art Therapy –
A Transcultural Approach Exploring Cultural Bereavement, Trauma, and Grief
Pre-school aged refugee children are at a higher risk for sustained traumatic grief, in which childhood trauma symptoms intrude on a child's ability to bereave their multiple losses. A transcultural and developmental approach provides a framework for understanding the multiple issues of pre-trauma, trauma, and host country integration that challenge refugee children and their families. An instrumental case study methodology is used in order to integrate these theories and capture the complexity of issues one young refugee child referred to art therapy due to post-traumatic stress symptoms. Through case descriptions and qualitative analysis of the resulting themes, this case study seeks to explore how this child expresses cultural bereavement, trauma, and grief in his art and play expressions. As well, the case will explore the ways that art therapy can help children experiencing traumatic grief re-engage developmental coping strategies in order to work through grief and trauma symptoms. The findings from this analysis will demonstrate how 'anchor points' of a child's traumatic memories express themselves in verbalizations, repetitive images, traumatic play, and how these are entry points for the therapist to work with in therapy through play and art. Through creating a warm therapeutic alliance, with engaged and sustained reciprocal communication, this case demonstrates how art therapy can help re-engage a child's capacity to communicate symbolically through art and play in order to integrate losses and grief into a growing self-concept.
Lustman, Lenka 2007
Pilot project: Evaluation of an intervention program using art therapy with young girls victim of sexual abuse
The number of cases of sexually abused children remains particularly alarming and pinpoints a discomfort in our society, in which this crime occurs on a daily basis. The objective of this study was to design, implement and evaluate an intervention program consisting of 16 sessions using art therapy with a group of three young girls victim of sexual abuse. The treatment effectiveness was evaluated on the psycho-social-affective levels according to the mixed methods methodology, combining the qualitative and quantitative approaches simultaneously in a quasi-experimental design. The qualitative phase included a description and detailed analysis of the intervention, whereas in the quantitative phase the effect of the program on the participant's symptomatology was evaluated using pre- and post-tests. The assessment tools employed were the Trauma symptom checklist for children and the Draw a person test for emotional disturbances. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of some of the measured symptoms such as self-esteem, affect expression, anger, post-traumatic stress and sexual preoccupations. On the other hand, anxiety and depression were found to be less sensitive to the treatment. In spite of the limited number of participants, the results were positive and support the use of art therapy with victims of sexual abuse.
Project pilote : Évaluation d'un programme d'intervention utilisant la thérapie par les arts avec des jeunes filles victimes d'abus sexuel
Le nombre des cas d'enfants victimes d'abus sexuel demeure particulièrement alarmant et révèle un certain malaise au sein de notre société qui vit ce crime au quotidien. Cette étude s'est donné pour objectif la conception, la réalisation et l'évaluation d'un programme d'intervention de 16 séances utilisant la thérapie par les arts, dans le cadre d'un traitement de groupe avec trois jeunes filles victimes d'abus sexuel. L'évaluation de l'efficacité du traitement se fait aux niveaux psycho-socio-affectif, selon la méthodologie de type méthodes mixtes, combinant simultanément les approches qualitatives et quantitatives dans un format quasi expérimental. La phase qualitative est consacrée à la description et à l'analyse détaillée des interventions et de leur pertinence. La phase quantitative, sous forme de pré-test et post-test, évalue l'effet du programme sur la symptomatologie des participantes. Les méthodes d'évaluation utilisées son le Trauma symptom checklist for children et le Draw a person test for emotional disturbances. Les résultats ont démontré une réduction significative de certains des symptômes mesurés (estime de soi, expression de l'affect, colère, stress post-traumatique, préoccupations sexuelles). Par contre, d'autres symptômes se sont révélés moins sensibles aux effets du traitement (anxiété, dépression). Malgré le nombre limité de participantes, les résultats positifs encouragent l'utilisation de la thérapie par les arts pour les victimes d'abus sexuel.
Madan, Athena P. 2005
Quality of attachment and embodied symbolic play: A case study: Drama therapy with a mother-preschooler dyad manifesting an insecure attachment pattern
The attachment relationship in the parent-child dyad directly affects the child's developmental, social, and emotional growth. This first, formative relationship not only acts as the foundation from which the child relates to his or her social environment, but it also influences their self-concept, the cognitive and social capacities that are crucial in later childhood development, and ultimately how the child will respond and adapt to the world. This paper discusses one case study dealing with semi-directed, embodied symbolic play in drama therapy interventions designed to increase the quality of attachment with a mother-preschooler dyad. Intervention targeting both parent and child's abilities in perceiving, interpreting, and responding to emotional states in self and other may address some of the deficits associated with child aggression and disorders of conduct. A drama therapy model may serve parents in responding, interacting, and/or relating more sensitively to their child.
Madden, Alice J. 2002
An exploration of ego development and the suppression of anger in persons with borderline personality disorder as seen in art therapy: A case study
This paper explores the process and efficacy of art therapy treatment with a person diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), who had attempted suicide.
Personality disorders are separated from major mental disorders in both severity and classification. They are described as behaviours or traits that are characteristic of recent and long-term impaired social or occupational functioning which cause subjective distress. Clients with the diagnoses of BPD, those traditionally labelled as 'hard to handle' and 'unresponsive to therapy', are included in the Cluster B category of personality disorders which also includes antisocial, histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders. There are a number of typical criteria which appear to be due to a combination of biopsychosocial factors, and include, but are not limited to, affective instability, inappropriate intense anger and poor ego boundaries.
The hypothesis of this paper is that some people are likely to suppress (act-in) rather than act-out their anger; the affective instability presents as suicidal intent. It is further hypothesized that the use of art as a transitional and holding space can contribute to ego development and subsequent emotion regulation. In this case, eight months of art therapy was the primary treatment modality, and there have been indications of changes in this person's lifestyle and coping behaviours.
Maisonneuve, Denise 1996
L'inceste: essai théorique sur ses causes, ses conséquences, et l'art-thérapie comme outil de traitement
Cette recherche apporte surtout un aspect théorique du problème familial et social qu'est l'inceste. Je présenterai, dans la première partie, la théorie sur laquelle j'ai basé mon étude soit, l'approche psychanalytique vue par deux auteurs: Freud et Miller.
Je tenterai aussi de définir l'inceste tel quel, de d6crire les circonstances menant à l'acte et les principales caractéristiques de la famille incestueuse. Je donnerai différents profils de l'abuseur (dans la famille nucléaire: père, frère, dans la famille élargie: oncle, cousin, grand-père, et celui du parent non-abuseur). J'élaborerai ensuite sur les conséquences à court et à long terme ainsi que les mécanismes de défense utilisés pour tenter de minimiser les séquelles.
La deuxième partie traitera d'abord des moyens pour explorer la présence de l'inceste au moyen de tests psychologiques tels le « House-Tree-Person Test » et le « Kinetic Family Test ». Je présenterai également différentes approches thérapeutiques pour traiter les personnes abusées en insistant davantage sur l'art-thérapie comme moyen efficace de résoudre les conflits, tant par la thérapie individuelle que par la thérapie de groupe. Finalement, j'aborderai le transfert et le contre-transfert comme outils de travail employés par la thérapeute pour aider la cliente.
Maisonneuve, Denise 1997
L'inceste: L'art-thérapie comme outil de traitement auprès d'une jeune adolescente
Ce travail complète une recherche sur l'inceste. Dans une étude antérieure (Maisonneuve, 1996), j'ai présenté la partie théorique, en cherchant à cerner la question de l'inceste quant à sa définition et au rôle joué par les différents protagonistes. J'ai voulu analyser les moyens de dépistage existants et aborder les diverses approches thérapeutiques, en préconisant surtout l'art thérapie pour traiter les personnes abusées. Dans ce présent ouvrage, j'aborderai la partie clinique en proposant une, étude de cas. Il s'agit d'une adolescente de 15 ans qui a subir l'inceste en bas âge. À partir de la description des sessions et de l'analyse de ses dessins, je tenterai de circonscrire les différents mécanismes de défense que la cliente a adoptés, tant pour survivre dans son quotidien que dans la thérapie.
Je traiterai de la relation thérapeute/cliente à partir des notions de transfert et de contre-transfert.
Finalement, je donnerai, bien humblement, mes impressions diagnostiques concernant les problèmes que j'ai cru déceler chez ma jeune cliente.
J'espère, de cette façon, comprendre le processus thérapeutique dans lequel nous avons évolué afin de m'aider dans ma pratique actuelle auprès des enfants et des adolescents.
Maisonneuve, Denise 1997
L'inceste: L'art thérapie comme outil de traitement auprès d'une jeune adolescente
This paper represents the second part of my research on incest. In an earlier study (Maisonneuve 1996), I presented the theoretical part of the research, which dealt with the definition of incest and the roles played by the various people involved. I analysed current means of detecting incest and discussed therapeutic approaches, with a special emphasis on art therapy with survivors of abuse.
In this paper, I will present the clinical part of the research, by means of a case discussion. The case involves a 15 year old girl who was an incest victim at an early age. After describing and analysing the therapy sessions, I will attempt to specify the various defence mechanisms which the client adopted to survive in her daily life as well as in therapy.
I will also discuss the therapist -client relationship in terms of transference and counter transference.
Finally, I will present my diagnostic impressions concerning the problems which I perceived in my adolescent client.
I hope that the comprehension of the therapeutic process involved in this case will help me in my current practice with children and adolescents.
Major, Dominique 2007
From Athena to the Shaman: Myths and the individuation process in art therapy
The following qualitative research is about using myths in an individuations process in a creative art therapy setting. The study presents the data based on a heuristic methodology investigating my own experience during three therapeutical workshops between 2003 and 2004.
The theoretical framework is taken from depth psychology and explores archetypes and symbols. In order to see the transformative potential of Jung's method, the study presents my own experience of each phase of the individuation process. The study aims at showing how myths and images can be combined to better understand the meaning of archetypes, and to reveal their action on the psyche. When unconscious material becomes conscious, a transformation starts to take place. The psychological integration of the conscious and unconscious material leads to the discovery of the Self.
D'Athéna à la chamane : Mythes et processus d'individuation en art-thérapie
Ce travail de recherche explore l'utilisation des mythes à l'intérieur d'un cadre de thérapie utilisant plusieurs modalités artistiques. Cette étude présente le résultat d'une recherche heuristique réalisée à partir de mes images produites lors de trois ateliers thérapeutiques vécus entre 2003 et en 2004.
La méthode d'interprétation des images s'inspire de la psychologie des profondeurs et fait une incursion dans le monde des archétypes et des symboles. Afin de cerner le potentiel de transformation psychologique de cette méthode, cette étude décrit mon expérience des différents étapes du processus d'individuation. Il s'agit de mettre en relief comment l'action conjointe des mythes et de l'art peut permettre de reconnaître les archétypes actifs dans la psyché. En permettant au matériel inconscient de devenir conscient, une réconciliation de ces aspects devient possible pour permettre la reconnaissance du Soi.
Mankofsky, Helen 1988
The Intrauterine Experience and the Image: An Exploration of the Archetypal Womb Image as Symbol, Myth and Ritual Related to a Case Study in Art Therapy
An incubational mode for art therapy is proposed; a mode where an important aspect of the art therapy process can be seen as gestation. An investigation is made of how the womb symbol, the gestation and rebirth myths, and rituals have been defined in the literature, and how and why the archetypal experience of gestation is effective in producing change. Literature on mythology, on clinical data in psychology and on archetypal expression in women's studies is consulted. The central concern is an emphasis on presenting "the womb" as creative space; as container for gestation, growth and transformation; as container helping to consolidate the necessary forms for releasing potential and power. Emerging as significant are the concepts of containment and transformation. In this regard, a comparison is drawn between the temenos and the therapeutic frame within the context of a containing and holding environment. In an attempt to emphasize the metaphoric aspect of the intrauterine experience for art therapy, reference is made to case material where womb symbolism and rebirth fantasies are expressed through drawings. Some implications of the incubational mode for art therapy are drawn.
Marchand, Sylvie 2002
Art therapy and a topic dermatitis: Making the invisible visible
By combining qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, the present study attempts to measure the impact art therapy might have on psychosomatic skin disorders and its symptoms. The "Visible-Invisible" model developed for this research is introduced and demonstrated through the case material of a woman living with eczema. The use of reliable tests such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Anxiety State Traits Assessment (ASTA), the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - III (MCMI-111) and the SF-36 Health Survey are used to measure the effects of the treatment onto the eczematous symptoms and related factors such as anxiety. Following art therapy treatment, the Post-test scores indicated lower anxiety level and higher vitality, social functioning and mental health as rated by the participant. Although some of the results were found significant, they should not be generalized to the population living with psychosomatic skin disorders.
Martin, Glaucia Cristina 2001
The Alliance between Drama Therapy and Emotional Intelligence
In respect and in honour of the power that is innate in every human being, this paper explores the possibility of integrating two different fields never before combined, Drama Therapy and Emotional Intelligence. Both put faith in the whole individual and emphasize the importance of fully developing one's potential as a human being. Both fields open up the possibility of positive transformation and use different tools to accomplish this goal. The intention of this paper is to create a Preventative Program based on Drama Therapy techniques that are designed to promote Emotional Intelligence in schools. Schools are the intended environment for parents, teachers and children to use the program to work together towards self-healing and inner transformation. The topics included in this paper are: a relevant literature review of Emotional Intelligence Theory and Self-Science curriculum, a study combining Drama Therapy methods and lessons taught by the Self-Science curriculum and the final development of a Preventative program.
Mason, Janis 2001
The Art Therapy Process of a Child Diagnosed With Conduct Disorder
This paper will follow the development of art work done by an eight-year old boy who has been diagnosed with conduct disorder and who experienced impaired mothering. It will also show how, over time, he expanded his use of the creative arts to include enactment, improvisation, singing and songwriting as alternative means of expression and ways of working through his issues. Goals were formulated for this boy with the object relations theory in mind, and in particular, the notions of Winnicott who placed a great emphasis on the infant/mother relationship in the process of maturation.
The goals and the process included: working on attachment issues by creating a secure holding environment within which the therapeutic alliance could be built; providing a facilitative and supportive milieu that was ever ready to adapt to the therapeutic needs of the client; using art to sublimate painful and aggressive feelings associated with feeling unloved (unattached); facilitating a reparative experience with a good enough mother figure through the therapeutic relationship; and positive mirroring in order to strengthen the sense of self.
At the end of therapy, the client showed a marked improvement in behavior, peer relationships, impulse control and also displayed increased self esteem. Post-therapy, the client was reported to have sustained these improvements and was said to have enjoyed a positive experience over the summer months whilst at camp.
May, Samantha 2002
There is a Crack in Everything ... Mind the Gap
Theatre of Becoming: An Heuristic Inquiry into the Process of Becoming a Dramatherapist
This paper is a heuristic study, exploring the process of becoming a dramatherapist. It proposes self-revelatory performance as both the heuristic research tool and the container for the findings of the study. The paper chronicles the entire research process as well as the performance piece. The author argues for the importance of self-reflective practices such as this in the training process of dramatherapists. It covers the effect of this research process and gives implications for the practice and training of dramatherapists.
Maybie, Wade Anderson 1998
The Interplay between Boundary and Freedom: An Eastern and Western Exploration of the Freedom/Boundary Relationship in Therapy, with an Interventional Emphasis toward Drama Therapy
This paper investigates the relationship between boundary (i.e. limit and structure setting) and freedom (i.e. free association and openness) in both Western and Eastern therapeutic ideologies. Using at first a linear spectrum, the freedom/boundary relationship is uncovered as complementary, fluid, and multidimensional. Balancing points are described as places in time where boundary needs and freedom needs are being met simultaneously, and furthermore that this area of "flow" is the place where the healthiest human state may exist. Drama Therapist David Read Johnson's Developmental Transformations is examined as a method which aims to align itself with the elusive balancing points, using recognizable human "energy" as its primary monitoring agent.
In part 2, the Chinese pictograph for "crisis" is analysed in detail as it pertains to freedom (opportunity) and boundary (danger). Using a hypothetical case study of a suicidal adolescent in therapy, each step in his journey is marked by one of six sequential images in the pictograph. The "individual" journeys to the "cliff" where there is the demand for a "measured response" by the drama therapist. If this response is correct, the adolescent will "take root" and enter a 'working through' phase of "union and incubation" through which he may at last arrive at the "frontier to consciousness and enlightenment". This therapeutic journey reflects the constant spiralling between the boundary and freedom needs of the client, and therefore it is proposed that the image of a circle replace the linear spectrum as a more apt illustration of the relationship.
In final summary, freedom and boundary are described as partners in health maintenance, and lastly, the extent to which the therapist recognizes his or her own bias toward either boundary or freedom is the primary determinant in how accurately he or she may monitor the freedom and boundary needs of the client.
Maybie, Wade Anderson 2000
Holding the Mirror up to Nature: A Heuristic Inquiry into the Relationships between Empathy, Healing, and Drama
Based on a personally seminal therapeutic event experienced and witnessed by the author, this paper seeks to elucidate the relationship between empathic reflection and heating, and how drama therapy is a particularly potent expression of this relationship. A heuristic method of inquiry will be utilized as the basis for investigation.
Constructed in two parts, Part One explores the author's personal journey in uncovering the heating potential of empathic reflection, drawing upon and comparing his personal findings to pertinent literature in the field of empathy research, including that of Carl Rogers, R.L. Katz, Jacob Moreno, and many others. Part Two focuses on the value of dramatic empathy in the healing process, starting with David R. Johnson's concept of developmental transformations, and, in particular, on his notion of faithful rendering- The author describes experiences in both roles of the therapeutic relationship, client and therapist, to illustrate the literature of Johnson, R. Landy, Moreno, Wm. Shakespeare and others. Throughout, the author emphasizes the fluid relationship between self-empathy and other-empathy, and how fear, in particular, threatens the maintenance of empathic flow. Lastly, the paper examines how drama therapy works within the natural human desire to role-play, and how externalized role-playing with the drama therapist can uncover and exhaust the client's self-destructive internalized role-playing.
It is concluded within this paper that the therapeutic power of dramatic reflection is centralized in its ability as an agent of illumination, which is, in turn, a vital component of both internal and external change.
Maxheleau, Suzanne 2007
Stillness: The dance of creation
The experience of stillness is one which has been studied through meditation and in relation to the dance/movement experience. There seems to be a close correspondence between stillness and the creative or art making process and thus, I postulate that stillness is an inherent part of the creative process. Following a heuristic line of inquiry, I sought to discover the nature of stillness and as it relates to the creative process through my own experiences. In this paper I share my journey through the various stages and realizations which have led me to learn how to further enhance the experience of stillness, to listen to and trust tacit knowledge, and to use art making for its potential to quiet the discursive mind.
McIntosh, Stuart 1998
Identity, Illness and Art therapy: A Phenomenology of Cross-Cultural Psychothrapy
This thesis addresses the challenges of providing therapy in across-cultural relationship. It focuses on the need for a consistent methodology to circumvent the inherent problems of translation, interpreting cultural signification and cultural bias in the provision of care and development of a therapeutic relationship. Evidence of possible traumatic political experiences is considered from the case material.
It is based on the case study of a male adult from South East Asia receiving treatment for a diagnosed chronic Bipolar Mood Disorder. Adjunct treatment through art therapy supported the phenomenological expression of an immigrant. Visual representations provided an opportunity to elaborate on some of the identity issues. These concerned the isolation from a community of origin, the symptomatology such as somatization as a departure form conventional Western concepts of illness and the definition of body image.
A chapter focuses on cross-cultural and Chinese concepts related to psychological processes that have relevant implications for any psychodynamic psychotherapy is included. The treatment issues of the case suggest that a consistent methodology and awareness of cultural context and of the client's explanations is required to avoid a limited treatment plan or possible misdiagnosis.
McKenna, Annie Pollock 1998
An Art Therapy Assessment Instrument to Gauge Attachment during Pregnancy
This paper begins by surveying literature on art therapy, attachment theory and the psychological aspects of pregnancy. It then discusses how art products can be contextualized within attachment theory to provide a method of exploring the psychological constructs activated during pregnancy. It is proposed that data gathered from art therapy procedures and data gathered via attachment theory procedures, enjoy sufficient complimentarily, and relate to pregnancy significantly enough, to provide a productive union for research and clinical work. Six pregnant women participated in this pilot study. Each completed a demographic questionnaire, the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), a Bird's Nest Drawing (BND), and a Mother and Child Drawing (MCD). Preliminary results confirmed some concordance and good complimentarily between the two data sets. The RQ provides data which are reliable and informative to the clinician in identifying risk. The drawing data identify risk to a moderate degree. The drawing data, however, add to assessment data information which the client and clinician can use together to begin exploration of the client's attachment styles. The art data then, confirm risk and pave the way for intervention. The paper continues by discussing adjunct aspects of the art which have potential in identifying other psychological phenomenon which is beneficial for intervention. This paper concludes by discussing the need for, and possible direction of, further study.
McLaughlin, Heather 2004
Narrating the Silence, a Reflexive Case Study: Art Therapy with a Latency Aged Girl with Selective Mutism
This research paper explores the application of art therapy with a 7-year-old girl, Laura, who was diagnosed with selective mutism. For this nonverbal client, art and play served as effective modes of communication and expression. Retention of both voice and emotions were central themes that pervaded the therapy as Laura struggled to contain feelings of vulnerability and anger. I examined the different themes that emerged primarily through a psychodynamic model.
I adapted the standard case study format in order to take a reflexive stance. This requires an active voice to acknowledge my subjectivity, which I believe to be a particularly important consideration when providing the voice for a nonverbal client. It also enables me to share some of my personal experiences with retention of voice that I found relevant to this case, both in helping me to understand some of my client's issues and in influencing my perception of her experience. I used session and file notes, photographs, and a journal kept over the year as data for this study.
McLean, Cheryl L. 2004
Can a Performance Raise Awareness About Aging and Autonomy?
The problem of lack of autonomy for older persons can lead to depression and seriously compromise mental health.
This research inquiry reports on a therapist's process as she worked directly with older persons in low income supportive living residences recording lived experience past and present in the context of the resident environment. This research data was used as the background for a script and ethno drama called “Remember Me for Birds” about aging, autonomy and mental health.
Research was conducted at The Rene Cassin Institute of Social Gerontology, Montreal, in April 2003, with clinicians and social workers to determine if the performance could raise awareness about client autonomy related to mental health.
The positive results of the inquiry are discussed as well as applications for others working in mental health.
McMahon, Shannon 1993
Towards Therapeutic Understanding through Dreams, Art and Poetry
The intent of this study is to examine the intuitive value of art therapist's dreams, art and poetry, as opportunities for gaining insight into possible client dynamics and the therapeutic relationship. Creative responses to be explored include: interactive art therapy, post-session response art and poetry, therapist's dreams and personal artwork. This study acknowledges and builds upon foundations established by Joanne Kielo on the therapeutic benefits of creating post session response art, as compiled in her thesis entitled, "A Study of Art Therapists' Counter transference and Post-Session Imagery” (1988).
Meltzer, Caroline 1996
Continuing a Journey: Art Therapy in a Special Education and Rehabilitation Setting
This paper is the account of my primary encounter as an art therapy student new to the field in a first year practicum setting. In it, I describe my experience at a special education and rehabilitation institution in Montreal that had little prior exposure to art therapy. The approach I took and the sources to which I looked for guidance are also described. Using a case study example, interviews with staff members and descriptions of some of my experiences, the paper discusses both the successes and difficulties that I encountered at the setting as well, as provides insight into how I would do things differently if I was given the opportunity to start over. The paper is intended as a resource for those that may be about to, or are thinking of embarking on a similar journey.
Meltzer, Caroline 1997
Art Therapy with Hospitalized Older Adults
This paper investigates the subject of art therapy with hospitalized older adults. It is the account of one art therapy student's perspectives and experiences with this population. The paper addresses many of the issues specific to working in a hospital setting, including the struggles and the successes that the author encountered. A literature review highlights issues related to hospitalized older adults, and case material involving an individual patient seen in short-term art therapy will be presented. A further inquiry into some issues that were not addressed in the literature will be sought through phenomenologically informed interviews. Excerpts from the interviews conducted by the student art therapist with experienced art therapists and another art therapy student will seek to address some unanswered questions regarding art therapy with hospitalized older adults.
Miller, Rosely 1989
The Art Therapy Process in the Context of the Psychosomatic Syndrome and Alexithymia
This thesis attempts to define alexithymia, based on physiological (biological) and psychological (psychodynamic) theories, and its link with psychosomatic symptom formation and symbolic functioning.
Difficulties experienced in using traditional psychoanalytical and psychosomatic treatment methods with the alexithymic will be examined, necessitating consideration of alternate modes of therapy. This study is based on the fact that at times, verbal insight therapies are faced with limitations, and therefore considers the concepts of creatively oriented, nonverbal art therapy, and the use of visual art materials to assist in integration or reintegration of personality.
Expressive art therapies, with a developmental, object relations approach are explored as treatment alternatives for problems of symbolization and the expression of affect and to promote new levels of perceptual organization by expressing the past through its reenactment creatively, using art and image, and symbolic play for self expression.
Millette, Pierre-Charles 2002
Le personnage fictif et son effet sur la personne réelle : La dramathérapie comme processus de transformation
This drama therapy process puts forward the elaboration and then the investigation of a fictitious character created in the mind of an individual's imagination. This process uses some fundamental and specific concepts of the drama therapy such as spontaneity, distancing, play space and role. The phenomenological experiment took place during the winter 2002 when we created a group of persons able to work with the imagination in a non-directive way. The characters created by two members of the group will describe the process. On the therapeutic level, a side-approach was voluntarily used to shed a different light on the individual's problem. The goals to achieve were the identification and the integration of interiorised aspects that previously prevented the reaching of a sense of self regulated to the reality and not to the mourning coming from the past. It is possible to believe that the emergence of this inner space has a therapeutical value for the individual able to perceive it as one of the triggering factors of his psychological distress or like in this case, depression.
Millette, Pierre-Charles 2002
Le personnage fictif et son effet sur la personne réelle : La dramathérapie comme processus de transformation
Ce processus dramathérapeutique propose l'élaboration puis l'exploration d'un personnage fictif issu de l'imaginaire individuel. Il repose sur certains concepts fondamentaux propres à la dramathérapie comme la spontanéité, la distance, l'espace de jeu et le rôle. Cette expérience de type phénoménologique s'est déroulée durant I'hiver 2002. Un groupe de personnes aptes à utiliser l'imaginaire dans un sens non-directif fut mis sur pied. Les personnages crées par deux des membres du groupe illustrent ce parcours. Au plan thérapeutique, cette approche aborde volontairement de façon indirecte la problématique de l'individu afin de favoriser un regard différent sur celle-ci. Ses objectifs sont, entre autres, l'identification et l'intégration d'aspects intériorisés qui empêchent l'atteinte d'un “Sense of Self ” plus ajusté à la réalité et non tributaire des blessures venant du passé. Il est permis de croire que l'émergence de cet espace intérieur peut se révéler thérapeutique pour l'individu qui en reconnaît la présence comme un des facteurs déclencheurs à l'origine de sa détresse psychologique, ici la dépression.
Mills, Anne 1989
A Statistical Study of the Formal Aspects of The Diagnostic Drawing Series of Borderline Personality Disordered Patients, and its Context in Contemporary Art Therapy
Using a standardized three drawing task, The Diagnostic Drawing Series, art therapists collected artwork from thirty-two adolescent and adult psychiatric inpatients diagnosed Borderline Personality Disorder under DSM-III criteria. The formal aspects of the art were blind rated on forty observable features, analyzed statistically and compared to the ratings of art made by other diagnostic groups and Controls under similar conditions. The structural qualities of the art of this sample are discussed. Literature reviews of borderline art and research design in art therapy, results of an interrater reliability study, and a survey of borderline deliberate self-harm are also examined.
Mintz, Sharon 1995
Clinical Case Study of an Adolescent Girl with Post Abortion Depression
This paper documents the process of art therapy in a 15-year-old girl who has experienced a clinical depression following a legal abortion. Some of the features of depression were related to ambivalence about the abortion and the sense of being coerced by her parents to undergo the procedure. As well, there are aspects of her early history and her family history which have been understood to have contributed to her pregnancy and her various attitudes towards the foetus and the young man who impregnated her.
The case study is framed with an introduction including medico-legal, epidemiologic and sociologic aspects of abortion in adolescents, which is a serious public health issue. It also describes personal and interpersonal factors leading to teenage pregnancy.
Following the case history is a description of the psychological development of adolescence which includes such authors as Mahler, Blos and Erikson.
The paper ends with a description of the process of art therapy, by linking the art with the Five Stages of Mourning as hypothesized by Feinstein. In this way, it is shown that the resolution of symptoms from a bereavement point of view is closely associated with the successful work of the art therapy
Monk, Beverly 1996
Parental Objects as Symbols: An Art Therapeutic Approach
The primary objective of this investigation is to discover the extent to which drawings of parental rooms and objects could be used to explore identity-related issues such as attachment, gender roles and goals as they arise in the parent/child relationship. The technique I am proposing is a structured art-based task involving parents' objects which are deemed significant by the children. For the purposes of this paper a parental object is defined as any object, functional or decorative, that is owned or was owned by the parents or grandparents. The procedure is descriptive, helping the therapist to understand the client's world, and may have prescriptive implications as well.
I begin by using the theories of Freud (1900, 1933, 1938), Jung (1966) and Winnicott (1965, 1971, 1986) to establish the integral role of parents in the child's development. The proposal that children are also influenced by rooms and inanimate parental objects within the home, is then put forth. In order to make this transition, I draw on Winnicott's ideas regarding object relations (1971) and Klein's notions of symbolization and projective and introjective identification (1921-1945). Finally, the empirical study done by Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton (1981) which looks at the implications of domestic objects, is used to support the theory that chosen objects are much more than abstract signs representing intrapsychic conflicts.
The pilot study itself involves three adult psychiatric inpatients who had each received a diagnosis of depression. Depression, as well as the underlying features of hypomania and borderline personality that were present, will be discussed briefly as they pertain to the manner in which these participants expressed themselves. Drawings and discussions of their parents' rooms and objects are used to explore the themes of memory, attachment, gender roles, sexuality and goals. Within these areas, the writings of Freud on memory (1938), Bowlby on attachment theory (1969, 1979) and Jack (1991) and Devor (1989) on gender roles will be cited. Within the stated limitations of this study the potential for using parental objects in art therapy is shown. Possible modifications to the procedure and client populations that might benefit the most from its use are suggested.
Monk, Beverly 1997
Symbols from Home: The Use of Personal Objects in an Art Therapy Drawing Task with Four Latency-Aged Children
This paper is an exploration of an assessment technique in which drawings of personal objects and gift objects associated with significant others are solicited from four latency-aged children. My proposal is that drawings of objects belonging to mothers, fathers and other family members as well as gift objects that have been received, have the potential to elicit information regarding the nature of the children's relationships with these people, their responses to absent parents, the presence of material or emotional deprivation, the presence or absence of supportive individuals and the children's individual defenses, strengths and needs.
As a theoretical framework for this pilot study, attachment theory, notions regarding "goodness of fit" and developmental and artistic norms are considered. As well, anthropological, sociological and philosophical perspectives are discussed as they apply to people's relationships with objects. Areas for future research are presented.
Moore, Nathalie-Monika 2008
The Interface between Motherhood and Art Therapist
I am a mother and an art therapist. This heuristic self-inquiry explored my experience of counter-transference issues in a therapeutic alliance with children in a psychiatric ward. Practicum setting and its population initiated a series of questioning concerning the interface between my roles of mother and art therapist that eventually lead to this research paper. My data was collected in the forms of journals, case notes, drawings, dreams, supervision, and self-dialogues. And the essence of meaning was extracted from emerging themes. My findings emphasized the importance of the therapist attending to and working through counter-transference issues when personal, life-changing events affected the therapeutic relationship. I discovered the ways in which the key circumstances in my life as an art therapist and as a mother impacted the therapeutic alliance, more so because my lived experience was related to the population in treatment. Carrying my second child during this study provoked the resurgence of unresolved feelings surrounding my previous pregnancies. I have embodied Moustakas' (1990) six phases metaphorically and literally. The birth of my child and the labour from this study brought forth some unconscious notions into consciousness for the benefit of self-discovery.
Morin, Marie-Élène 2008
The Transformation of my Personal Mythology in the Journey of Becoming an Art Therapist: A Heuristic Perspective
The following qualitative research paper is about the transformation of my personal mythology while completing my master's degree in Art Therapy. This was accomplished through a five stage exercise series elaborated by Feinstein (Feinstein & Krippner, 1988). The method of inquiry is heuristic (Moustakas, 1990) and the data was collected between the timeline of winter 2007 to winter 2008. This study is a result of a concern regarding the proportion of the personal component in the education of Art Therapists. The primary objective is to evaluate the shifts in my personal and professional identities, as reflected in my personal mythology. Heuristic inquiry is used because of the inherently personal nature of the experience of becoming an Art Therapist, and also because of its correspondence with the five-stage model. The data includes journal entries, art, and descriptions of rituals and dreams. From one symbol to another, a deep transformation
is revealed. The result is a concretely different symbol expression, actualized and transformed, identifying the self, and a renewed way of visualizing life's challenges.
Mosher, Jennifer A. 2007
The Experience of Parental Illness: A Heuristic Arts-Based Inquiry
This research addresses the author's experience with parental illness and how that experience can be explored and understood through a heuristic arts-based methodology. The integration of the use of artwork within the heuristic framework is addressed and the author's experience with this process outlined. Art-making was used as the primary means of exploration and analysis of the question, which lead to greater understanding, awareness and acceptance within the author. Theory and research related to parental illness is outlined and compared to the findings gleaned through the heuristic arts-based methodology used in the present study.
Moskovici, Blanche 2006
Client-presence: A heuristic inquiry into consolidating soto zen and art therapy practice
This exploratory research studied the client's experience with 10 to 25 minutes of zazen practice when used in the art therapeutic context as a transitional phase, between checking-in with the therapist and art making. First-person accounts by the researcher and six participants, women over 40 who were chosen for their experience with the zen art therapy approach, were generated using a questionnaire format. Concepts referenced to substantiate and explain the various findings of this heuristic study are framed by and include Jungian analytic psychology and alchemy, soto zen-based research and practice, process-oriented psychology, and art therapy.
Results indicate that the client is a witness to her zazen process through client-presence; that the checking-in period with the therapist impacts the client's zazen experience, while zazen informs the client's art making process and symbolism. Client movement from an initial state of distraction to concentrated presence and calmness was conceptualized, extending D.H. Shapiro and S.M. Zifferblatt's (1976) model in terms of a six-phase zazen process: (1) focus on breathing; (2) attention wanders; (3) focus returns to breathing; (4) porous states of mind, fluid breathing; (5) quiet mind, presence; and (6) last three minutes, no content and refined content. As well, two modes of client creative engagement were identified: Expressive Reactivity (ER) and Responsive Creativity (RC). A model of the zen art therapy approach is proposed. The findings support the use of zazen with an adult mental health population by zen-trained art therapists. Future development of an instrument to quantitatively measure client-presence is recommended.
Mouzouris, Anastasia 1994
A Survey of Apollonian and Dionysian Tendencies As Seen Through Object Relations Approaches in Art Therapy
The principal theme of this work is Apollonian and Dionysian Tendencies as applied to art therapy theory and practice.
This theoretical discussion which consists of a synthesis of concepts derived from Greek literature, cult and myth in conjunction with psychoanalytic formulations on aesthetics and ego development was originally inspired by the work of Wilhelm Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) entitled The Birth of Tragedy (1870- 1). In this controversial book, the German philologist extends the symbolic functions of the two Greek deities Apollo and Dionysos beyond their mythical roles in Greek history and presents them as driving forces in the creation of art, as well as co-existing psychological states that are shared both by the artist as well as his audience. As such, these two tendencies which were the basis of his aesthetic philosophy later became the impetus for the Romantic movement.
This thesis is an exploration of the psychological processes that these two deities symbolically represent in view of the reparative and destructive forces inherent in creative expression and ego development as seen through art therapy. Included is case material and art work from art therapy sessions with a latency aged boy through which I intend to illustrate how this model may be used to expand upon current theoretical and practical approaches to art therapy to provide therapists with a deeper understanding of their clinical impressions.
Munn Reichert, Pamela Eileen 1992
Two Sons of Absent Fathers Seen in Art Therapy
This thesis explores the implications of the father's role in the separation individuation processes in a child's development when this parent has been significantly absent in his child's life. A discussion of the theoretical positions of prominent object relations authors on child development and the father's role in his son's development is followed by two clinical vignettes of preadolescent boys seen in art therapy. The case illustrations describe a boy who was living alone with his mother all his life, and another who experienced several stepfathers. The cases are considered in light of the theory, and the role of art therapy with the children is discussed.
It is the author's opinion that the father plays a crucial role in the separation individuation processes of his child, and his absence, especially during the infantile individuation, may be a significant negative factor in the child's developmental progress.
Munn Reichert, Pamela Eileen 1992
Two Sons of Absent Fathers Seen in Art Therapy
Cette thèse explore les implications du rôle joué par le père à l'intérieur du processus de séparation-individuation. Cette exploration se situe dans un contexte où le père a été absent de la vie de l'enfant d'une façon significative.
La première partie propose une discussion des points de vue des principaux théoriciens de la relation d'objet concernant le développement de l'enfant et la fonction du père dans ce développement. Par la suite, les vignettes cliniques de deux pré-adolescents suivis en art thérapie sont présentées. Les illustrations du cas décrivent un garçon qui a toujours vécu seul avec sa mère, ainsi qu'un autre, ayant eu plusieurs beaux-pères se succéder dans sa vie. Ces cas sont étudiés à la lumière des théories précédemment exposées et la fonction de l'art thérapie auprès des enfants est examinée.
Selon l'auteur, le père joue un rôle primordial à l'intérieur du processus de séparation-individuation. Son absence, particulièrement lors de la première individuation, peut constituer un facteur négatif en ce qui concerne le progrès développemental de l'enfant.
Murray, Rebecca 1999
Diabetes, Imagery, and Art Therapy: The Potentials of Mental Imagery and Art Therapy in the Treatment of Psychological Factors Associated with Diabetes
* No abstract
Murray, Rebecca 2001
Diabetes and Art Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Self-Portrait and Ideal-Self Drawings of Adolescents with Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic illness which impacts upon not only the physical, but also the psychological health of the individual afflicted. This paper explores the relationship between diabetes and psychiatric disorder, and describes several existing intervention programmes for individuals with diabetes. A review of the art therapy literature pertaining to physical illness is conducted, and the benefits of using art therapy with this population are discussed. The results of a study conducted with diabetic adolescents are described. Adolescent participants completed an audio-taped interview and two drawing activities, a self-portrait, and an ideal-self drawing. This data was used to identify difficulties and conflicts in the lives of these adolescents in order to outline goals for a group art therapy intervention.
Nadeau, Francine 1999
Art Therapy with Patients Suffering from Alzheimer's disease
The elderly population is constantly growing and calls for more awareness. This paper presents the most frequent form of degenerative dementia the Alzheimer's disease and the use of art therapy with patients suffering from this disease. This literature review focuses on the Alzheimer's disease, the use of art therapy as a meaningful too] for monitoring the progression of the disease and as an alternative non-verbal modality for therapy with the Alzheimer's patients. The processes involved in visual perception and visual expression are examined and different ways to approach creativity and visual expression in art therapy with this population is investigated. This paper examines current research on the different approaches used by art therapists with this elderly population. Art therapy provides an important source of stimulation in keeping the patient active and encourages self-expression. Thoughts, feelings and experiences can be expressed simultaneously through the visual expression and in the therapeutic relationship of art therapy. Making and sharing experiences can enhance the sense of dignity and help breaking the isolation. Art therapy may provide an alternative means of communication when Alzheimer's patients progressively loose their cognitive capacity to utilize language meaningfully
Nadeau, Francine 2001
Traumatisme, rupture et art-thérapie : L'utilisation de l'aire transitionnelle dans le travail art thérapeutique chez les enfants souffrant de l'état de stress post-traumatique
This research paper examines post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and proposes the concept of art therapy as a transitional phenomenon in the treatment of traumatic stress in childhood. Many theories are presented to explain the trauma, including developmental and psychoanalytic contributions to the theory of traumatic stress and supporting theories within the context of art therapy. An in depth literature review of the disorder is presented, including the characteristic symptoms, the developmental impact of traumatic stress, the traumatic memory and intervention strategies in the treatment of traumatized children.
The paper is concluded with a critical integration of the theories and observations while the case study illustrates the treatment and therapeutic processes within the context of transitional phenomena in Art Therapy. In a Winnicottian art therapeutic approach, through reliability and trust, the potential space occurs with its opportunity for the child to experience a reparatory process. Trauma may lead to speechless distress and interferes with the ability to utilize words and symbols. The potential space offers the capacity for children to create symbolic representations and meanings of past traumatic experiences with the goals of taming the associated fears and memories. The art therapy situation can function as a transitional phenomenon and provide an intermediate space between the inner and outer realities. In the potential space, children experience creativity, use symbols to bridge the two realities and process information related to trauma. This approach recognizes the fundamental interrelationship of trauma and development. The case study highlights the potential of a Winnicottian art therapeutic approach for PTSD children to gain a sense of control and stop the regressive movement in their developmental continuum.
Nadeau, Francine 2001
Traumatisme, rupture et art-thérapie : l'utilisation de l'aire transitionnelle dans le travail art thérapeutique chez les enfants souffrant de 1'état de stress post-traumatique
Cette recherche explore la question de la reliaison des fonctions psychiques chez l'enfant ayant vécu un traumatisme et souffrant de l'état de stress post-traumatique. Il est en effet admis que le traumatisme provoque souvent la rupture de la fonction psychique de symbolisation. Le psychanalyste et pédiatre D. W. Winnicott a révélé l'importance des phénomènes transitionnels dans la formation de la capacité symbolique. La présente recherche vise à démontrer que l'instauration d'une aire transitionnelle d'expression en art-thérapie permet le rétablissement de la fonction symbolique.
Nous émettons l'hypothèse selon laquelle une approche art thérapeutique d'inspiration winnicottienne offre une possibilité de réappropriation de 1'espace psychique, de restauration, de la fonction de symbolisation et de reliaison lorsque des ruptures marquent le continuum de développement de l'enfant. Nous posons les questions suivantes : de quelle façon pouvons-nous appliquer le concept théorique de l'aire transitionnelle, tel que développé par Winnicott, à l'art-thérapie? Est-ce que ses propriétés spécifiques offrent un mode de restauration de la fonction de symbolisation et font d'elle un espace potentiel favorisant le travail symbolique pour 1'enfant souffrant de 1'état de stress post-traumatique ?
Il s'agit d'une recherche théorique, avec revue de littérature portant sur les approches développementale, psychanalytique et art thérapeutique de la théorie du traumatisme, suivie d'une exploration théorique du concept winnicottien des phénomènes transitionnels et illustrée par une étude de cas clinique. L'étude de cas propose une approche art thérapeutique fondée sur les principes de l'aire transitionnelle ; celle-ci retrace le cheminement d'un jeune, garçon souffrant de l'état de stress post-traumatique et rend compte de son implication dans un processus art thérapeutique ayant favorisé un travail de réparation symbolique.
Najarian, Anie 2007
Transmission of Trauma, Ritual, and Art Therapy
Using a historical-documentary method, this research aims to explore how art therapy can provide a ritual space in which transmitted trauma and loss can be worked through in a symbolic way. Previous theoretical researchers have suggested that as a result of war, trauma gets transferred to other generations creating a sense of unresolved grief. In war trauma the loss is often ambiguous. As a result, a ritual that may help the grieving process may be absent. Art therapy has been used to help people who have experienced trauma through its unique ability to visually and symbolically communicate difficult emotions. In addition, its ability to create therapeutic rituals can perhaps help those experiencing transmitted trauma.
The connection among these topics needs further exploration. Research exists on the relationship between transmission of trauma and loss, between loss and ritual, and between art therapy and trauma. These relationships will be elaborated in this paper. This research can contribute to how we understand the transmission of trauma and how art therapy can be used to help clients work through it.
Narbonne, Tara 2008
An Exploration of an Insecure Attachment Pattern and Identification Processes in Art Therapy: A Case Study Illustration of an Eight-year-old Girl
An insecure attachment can have a significant effect on a child's sense of security and development throughout his or her lifetime. This narrative case study explores and discusses how facets of an insecure attachment pattern and the issue of identity are revealed in art therapy. The artwork and symbolic play from sessions are analyzed under the scope of Object Relations and Attachment theories. Symbolic play was incorporated within the art therapy sessions with this child as further means to help identify underlying thoughts and emotions relating to insecure attachment and issues pertaining to identity. The literature review investigates various attachment theories and how attachment relates to creativity, as well as identity formation processes, threats to identity and responses to those threats. The results of this case study signify therapeutic growth, and the paper illustrates numerous ways in which issues of insecure attachment and identity can be explored via the therapeutic alliance, artwork, and symbolic play.
Neufeld, Valérie 1998
Anorexia Nervosa and Creativity
* No abstract
Neufeld, Valérie 1999
The Use of Art Therapy with Children in Hospitals Case Study
Not until recently have specialists begun to look at the effects of hospitalization and surgery on children and adolescents. Hrutkay and Eilert (1990), for example, describe the psychosocial effects of pediatric surgery and subsequent hospitalization on children. The authors identify reactions varying from increased anxiety and adjustment disorders to depression. They also observed that children in hospital often show increased dependence and regression, which cause considerable problems with rehabilitation and recovery. Moreover, children and adolescents, in the process of development, already deal with many difficult tasks as they are in constant change. This paper is a case study describing an adolescent girl's experience of art therapy while in hospital over a period of several months. Art therapy provided this patient with the opportunity to work through several issues pertaining to her development, including individuation and identity formation. It also allowed expression and reparation of her hospital experience, providing her with a sense of control.
Newman, Jennifer J. 2004
Taking Focus: A Case Study of Photography Used in an Art Therapy Group for Adolescent Girls Diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa
The following descriptive case study explores the use of photography in an art therapy group with adolescent girls diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. The ten-session group occurred over a five-week period as part of a treatment plan at a Canadian metropolitan children's hospital. The efficacy of introducing photography as a creative tool into an art therapy group with this adolescent population, ages 12-17, is discussed through case descriptions, artwork and self-reports. How the photography in art therapy enables communication of themes regarding identity, self-esteem, self-reflection and emotional expression is developed. Conclusions and recommendations for future groups and research are made.
Newton, Cindy 2001
Art Therapy at Home Base: A Survey of the Current Practice of Art Therapy as an In-Home Service
This paper explores how the practice of working with clients in their homes influences the conditions of therapy, and how this pertains to art therapy in particular. A questionnaire survey was designed based on pertinent literature as well as the researcher's own experience with home visits, and distributed to art therapists who have counselled clients in-home. Questions focused on: the art therapists' backgrounds, the populations they have worked with in-home, the logistics of providing such a service, how in-home therapy compares to their clinical experience, issues specific to working in the home environment, and the merits and drawbacks of this approach to therapeutic practice. Responses were analyzed, summarized, and interpreted according to themes. The results of the survey indicate that the art therapist participants find working in the home environment compares positively with their experiences of therapy in more conventional settings, and enhances the therapeutic relationship. A discussion of specific findings is integrated with relevant theory. Suggestions are made regarding possibilities for the continued practice of in-home art therapy.
Olivier, Julia Lorraine 1992
An Investigation into Theories of Drawing Development and some of their Implications for Art Therapy
An important number of prominent North American art therapists use and adopt art education and psychological theories of drawing development in their literature and therapeutic work. These models have been historically "endpoint" theories, meaning, realism is the goal of drawing development. Recent research conclusions, however, suggest that these theories may be too constrictive and submit a different way of understanding drawing evolution - one that is more flexible and that is based upon multiple drawing repertoires. Given that a considerable number of art therapists are influenced by the narrower models, this thesis intends to examine the way in which these models appear to be related to limiting psychological theories and how they have restricted art therapy practice. A different way of distinguishing drawing development in art therapy is proposed, one that does not evolve in a linear manner or which defines its artistic goals as realistic picture representation, but rather one that unfolds in continuing, circuitous patterns and acknowledges that patients have numerous visual repertoires. Master's level case material serves to illustrate the ways in which the new research conclusions might be applied to art therapy, especially in an approach that is concerned with Winnicott's idea of play and the imaginative world of symbolic - projection and transferential relationship.
Olivier, Kathleen 2006
The Usefulness of Embodiment in Psychotherapy: Drama therapy applies neuroscience's understanding of somatic memories
Somatic psychotherapists intuitively facilitate therapeutic changes with physical, embodied methods. Meanwhile, neuroscience's research has been making discoveries about the neuronal systems that could help explain and guide these intuitive approaches. It is demonstrated that a large part of memories is stored into those somatic/emotional memories, and therefore not accessible in verbal therapy. This research paper presents the current knowledge about the different cognitive, sensory, memory and emotive systems and specifically how they interact. It is such interaction that makes sensory psychotherapeutic approaches particularly efficient in working through somatic/emotional memories.
Psychodrama is presented as a method facilitating the integration of somatic/emotional memories with a cognitive process. Drama therapy is introduced as a method that enables somatic/emotional changes, and thus changes in meaning at a level of consciousness independent of cognitive processing. Case examples of both psychodrama and drama therapy are presented, and hypotheses are made about the potential neurobiological changes underlying the psychotherapeutic experiences. There are concrete explanations, based on knowledge derived from neural science, as to how and why drama therapy works to promote healing.
Oon, Phei Phei 2006
Playing with Gladys: A case study integrating drama therapy and behavioural interventions for selective mutism
This case study examines an integrative approach combining drama therapy and behavioural interventions as applied to Gladys, a 5-year-old girl diagnosed with selective mutism. In this study, it was found that behavioural skills, when implemented in the context of play, elicited vocalization and eventually speech from Gladys within a short time. Her vocalizations allowed her to enter dramatic play which in turn propelled spontaneous speech. The dramatic play also provided for her a space in which she could play different roles and rehearse interpersonal skills. The process helped to build her self-esteem and harness her spontaneity. Subsequently, these two qualities helped her to generalize her speech to new settings, on her own. In this study, the pleasure of play, as opposed to any tangible reward, is the primary motivator for Gladys's new behaviour, although other contributing factors to her changes are also examined. Gladys's newly harnessed spontaneity also helped her to become more sociable and resilient.
This study opens up the possibility of integrating behavioural therapy and drama therapy for the therapeutic benefits of a child with an anxiety-related condition, such as selective mutism.
Ostroff, Sheila Karen 2000
Many Windows into Our Selves: Linking Drama-Therapy to the Multiple Intelligence Theory Paradigm
Drama-Therapy is based on the abilities and choices of the client with a large spectrum of possibilities and applications. The Drama-therapist can select drama therapy methods from a continuum of what is available in accordance with the needs of the group or the individual client.
Multiple intelligence theory takes a holistic and humanistic view of the individual. The basis of Howard Gardner's theory is that there are many kinds of "intelligence" and that one's intelligence provides the basis for creativity: a child will go on to be most creative in fields where they have the greatest strengths.
This paper shows how the MIT paradigm and drama-therapy continuums are a good match. Drama therapists can consider the different intelligences using corresponding methods and techniques. The dramatic medium is used for creative expression. It helps to increase social skills and confidence through the creative arts and play, using symbols, metaphors roles and rituals. Examples of creative mediums with their links to the intelligences are discussed. Puppet and Storymaking work in drama-therapy are used as in-depth examples to demonstrate the links.
Ostroff, Sheila Karen 2001
Can Your Inner Child Come Out To Play?
Towards a Play Deficit Model of Re-Claiming Spontaneous Play and Laughter through Drama-Therapy
In this paper I explore the use of sensory embodiment and laughter in drama-therapy as a method towards repairing a “play deficit” due to early trauma. I will demonstrate through a case study that the regressive activation and the re-claiming of the inner child within the developmental play space provided by drama-therapy promote spontaneity and role flexibility. This paper demonstrates why developmental play stages must be experienced to be assimilated and that spontaneity is not something that can ever be intellectualized. A major premise being that regressive play can be healing and that drama play provides a space for the cathartic release of memory and emotion and a place to process it. It is much easier to think creatively around a problem under conditions of play and merriment, than when our mind is filled with a sense of helplessness, worthlessness, powerlessness, and inadequacy. The drama-therapist is a therapeutic witness and guide who create a time, place and space for the inner child to feel contained and safe enough to be spontaneous. This unconditional acceptance permits a space for the recreation and experiential rediscovery of the stages of human development. The drama therapist can provide a model focused on increasing role flexibility through mind/body connections. A meta-physical and meta-cognitive framework is made available for the client to reflect and process their current and early play experiences but from an adult perspective.
Drama-therapy is a laughter therapy that can contribute to mind/body wellness and advance mental health. Because, as we know, he who laughs... lasts.
Owen, Margaret 2008
Communication through Story: Story-Making with a Child Diagnosed with Selective Mutism
This qualitative research study views the therapeutic use of story-making with a six-year old girl diagnosed with selective mutism. The information gathered is presented as a descriptive case study and the therapeutic process is viewed through Renée Emunah's Integrative Five Phase Model. Mooli Lahad's Six-Piece Story-Making technique informed the story-making process, which was used in combination with other projective and psycho-dramatic techniques. Since verbal and emotional communication is usually the goal for children diagnosed with selective mutism, the primary research question investigated is: How does communication between a child with selective mutism and a therapist develop through story-making in a drama therapy setting? The study follows the detailed change in communication between the child and me as we move through several communication milestones prior to and during story-making.
Paddon, Mary 1991
Transitional Phenomena in Art Therapy: Inside Out and In Between
This thesis is based on the idea of "transitional phenomena" elaborated by object relations theorists, with a particular focus on art-making and art products as transitional phenomena and objects in the context of art therapy.
It is principally in the form of a forty minute audio documentary that includes interview segments with Arthur Robbins, Anthony Storr, and Susan Hudson. This sound composition is supported by case material in written form which examines how Winnicott's notion of transitional phenomena can be acknowledged as essential elements of creativity within the art making process and how this maybe applied in art therapy. The case study also explores the use of resistance as seen in acting-out and its presence in the interaction with art materials, and the creative process within the context of an art therapy session.
Paradis, Sylvie 1985
A Case-Study of a Female Substance Abuser during an Art Therapy Process Incorporating Video Feedback as an Integral Component
This thesis is a case-study in which are examined eight sessions of short term art therapy with a female in-patient in a drug abuse rehabilitation center using video recording as part of the therapeutic intervention and as an aid, to documenting the sessions. The client worked in drawing and painting media. The video tapes were made at each session and played back to the client at each subsequent session. A detailed transcription was made from the video tapes and was used as a main source along with the drawings and paintings for making observations and interpretations. (The sessions occurred in French and translations were made by the author).
Parrella-Ilaria, Maria A. 1992
The Toxic Breeder: A Critique of the Societal Construction and Visual Representation of the Feminine during the AIDS Crisis
As HIV/AIDS education increases, it is becoming increasingly clear that all sectors of society are affected. Women in particular are now cognizant of the implications and deleterious consequences of HIV infection for themselves, their partners and any possible off-spring. Though feminism has gained tremendous ground in asserting women's rights, the societal backlash to feminism has marked women as vectors of the disease/dis-ease. Herein, the issue of the artmaking process as a means of empowerment is examined in relation to activist groups such as ACT UP, and with regard to contemporary female artists whose art productions speak of the inherent violence of contemporary society and its effects on women's self-construction. Jenny Holzer's (1986) text-pieces have revealed the violence and power/sexual terrorism of Western language; Jana Sterbak (1979-87) described the body as habitat and documented its violation; Barbara Kruger (1982-83) challenged patriarchal stereotypes of the feminine in society; Frida Kahlo (1932-54) may be seen as the embodiment of the Other in society--not male, not white, not verifiably heterosexual--having lived in a body both physically and biologically beyond her control. Kahlo used her art as a process of self-construction and self-awareness, her life an apt metaphor for women affected by HIV/AIDS.
The hypothesis that art and specifically art therapy may serve to empower women is herein presented, culminating in the production of a research proposal which focuses on the use of art therapy as a mode of treatment and support for women living with a diagnosis of seropositivity.
Perecowicz, Tamar 2002
Creative Interventions in Drama Therapy for Treating Families
This paper addresses the centrality of families in our lives and the conflicts members' experience that bring them into therapy. Such conflicts are addressed within the context of dysfunction, noted by a breakdown in the family's communication or impairment in inter-member relationships. Dysfunction is addressed in a thorough discussion of two conventional therapeutic approaches. Bowenian therapy-built on systems theory and CBT or cognitive behavioral therapy with families are outlined for their therapeutic benefits and limitations. Their limitations highlight the need for alternative, more innovative interventions in family therapy. Drama therapy and four of its interventions; play, psychodramatic and sociometric techniques, and sculpting are discussed for their creative and dynamic approaches to helping people make sense of their struggles. Social constructionism is also explored for its ability to help family members "re-author" the unit's current, troublesome life story. This paper explores the usage and benefits of combining drama therapy with social construction is in family therapy and suggests new avenues to explore in further research and clinical practice.
Perkins, Shawna 2007
Creating Containment and Facilitating Freedom: Group Art Therapy with Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Running a successful therapy group for children with emotional and behavioral disorders is extremely challenging (Rozum, 2001). Specifically, the rules, limits, and boundaries are often challenged by individuals in a group setting. The therapist must learn to maintain appropriate balance between structure and flexibility within the therapeutic frame to facilitate each child's feeling of security, safety, and containment, and to maximize the child's creativity and therapeutic growth.
The purpose of this research paper is to examine the particular challenges that the art therapist and people in similar professions are faced with when working with groups of children with emotional and behavioral disorders. A literature review of emotional and behavioral disorders, group therapy with children, and the therapeutic frame informs the research paper. A case study follows, which investigates the experiences of an art therapy intern working with a group of three children in a day treatment center for children diagnosed with severe disruptive behavioral disorders. The case study explores how an art therapist maintains a therapeutic framework that safely supports and facilitates therapeutic growth and creative freedom, yet manages challenges to boundaries, limits, and rules that were encountered throughout the course of therapy. This research paper contributes to the dearth of qualitative research and literature that captures the subtle but pertinent nuances of working with children with emotional and behavioral disorders in a group setting.
Philipose, Leena 2003
An exploration of four approaches to dealing with counter-transference in drama therapy: A study of four models
This paper explores four drama therapy models in respect to their treatment of countertransference. This paper is in several sections. The first section traces the origin of the term ‘countertransference' to Freud, and follows the development of this term until present day. The second section consists of four subsections, which each detail the contribution of one drama therapist towards our understanding and appreciation of countertransference. Each subsection provides background information about the theorist/drama therapist, details the theoretical model s/he has developed including his/her view of countertransference, presents excerpts from an interview with each theorist, and finally gives specific examples from published literature of how these drama therapists work with counter-transference. This paper ends with a chart that cross-references all four models.
Piedalue, Carole 2005
Transformer l'image en art-thérapie: Exploration heuristique du processus de transformation de l'image comme outil thérapeutique dans le développement de la résilience
Cette recherche prote sur l'étude d'un modèle de transformation intentionnelle de l'image en art-thérapie ayant pour but de favoriser le développement d'un processus de résilience suite à un traumatisme. Elle propose une exploration détaillée des processus artistiques qui ont cours lors de la transformation volontaire d'images. La méthodologie de recherche s'inspire du modèle heuristique défini par Moustakes (1990), puisque la présente investigation prend comme objet premier d'investigation l'étude d'images, créées par la chercheuse, ayant un lien direct ou indirect avec une situation traumatique. L'opposition dialectique à l'oeuvre dans chacun des quatre thèmes qui ont émergés lors de la recherche, et le mouvement oscillatoire qui a prévalu, ont permis d'identifier l'existence d'une réalité duelle présente dans le processus transformationnel des images. Cette réalité duelle trouve une concordance exemplaire dans l'examen approfondi de la littérature scientifique portant sur le sujet de la résilience. On démontre en effet que le processus de résilience menant à la résolution d'un traumatisme comporte deux aspects indissociables, à savoir la destruction et la reconstruction. Les conclusions de l'auteure relatives à cette modalité de transformation volontaire de l'image en art-thérapie apportent des considérations significatives pour le développement de la recherche et de la pratique concernant le processus de résilience.
Plante, Pierre 1996
L'ajout de l'écriture dans un dessin par le client: différentes techniques pour l'art-thérapeute
En art-thérapie, la présence d'écritures dans les oeuvres réalisées par les client(e)s est un élément fort commun. Cette écriture peut être soit spontanée, autrement dit répondant à des besoins de l'individu réalisant l'oeuvre, ou encore proposée par l'art-thérapeute. La présente recherche se penche strictement sur la seconde position, soit l'écriture ajoutée, proposée par l'art-thérapeute. Faisant une revue des différentes techniques utilisées jusqu'à présent, elles sont aussi mises en comparaisons. De plus, la présente recherche propose quelques recommandations concernant leurs utilisations. Une discussion sur la position qu'occupe l'écriture dans la théorie est aussi abordée.
Plante, Pierre 1997
L'utilisation du scénario en art-thérapie: Une technique combinant la bande dessinée et le jeu de rôle
Le scénario est une technique utilisant la bande dessinée comme script pour des jeux de rôle. Ayant d'abord été élaborée pour venir en aide à une clientèle adolescente aux prises avec de graves problèmes psychologiques, cette technique demeure très malléable ce qui permet de l'adapter aux besoins d'une grande diversité de clientèles. De plus, elle peut aussi bien être appliquée en thérapie de groupe qu'en thérapie individuelle. La présente recherche propose une analyse de chacune des composantes de la technique du scénario soit la bande dessinée, l'écriture et les jeux de rôles. De plus, un exemple clinique illustrera le tout.
Poiré, Hélène 1983
Éducation/Thérapie par l'art glose sur la fonction du langage en écho: Parole/image
Toute histoire est récit, tout récit est narration, toute narration est langage.
Le langage se définit comme l'espace et le lieu de "la circonstance privilégiée" par le/la narrateur/rice.
Le langage "s'entend" ou ne "s'entend pas" à partir d'évènements réels ou imaginaires conscients/inconscients; évènements traduits à travers l'illusion, le phantasme, l'improvisation ou l'anticipation sur l'action passée, présente ou à venir, véhiculée par le/la narrateur/rice.
Le langage "se voit" ou ne "se voit pas" selon que le/la narrateur/rice dé/masque ou masque la valeur du geste - verbal, écrit ou oral - qu'il signifie.
Le langage "agit" ou "se crée" dans la parole dite pour l'oeil ou l'oreille qui, à ce -moment-là, devient "transfert" de l'histoire réelle du/de la narrateur/rice.
Le langage atteint le "tangible" lorsque le regardeur et l'auditeur ouvrent l'oeil et.prêtent; l'oreille à la voix (voie) du/de la narrateur/rice.
Nous éprouvons, par le biais de cette histoire, le langage de cinq narrateurs/rices diffférents/es, langage maintenu au fil de cette intervention par quatre adolescents/es et une intervenante. Les uns/es, par leur image, leur parole, leur comportement, et l'autre, par sa lecture, son écoutel son comportement, voient, entendent, disent et agissent, avant tout en vertu de ce qu'ils/elles sont.
La communication transmise a partir de l'ensemble de "ces messages" est codifiée sous un double paradigme, soit, 1) par la proposition d'un énoncé structural et théorique et, 2) par l'ajout d'un modèle conceptuel analytique s'y référant.
L'ambiguïté engendrée par le milieu opérationnel (hôpital) dans lequel nous nous sommes inscrits nous a incités, en outre, a élargir le champ premier de notre investigation, orientée préalablement vers l'éducation par l'art. Le phénomène nouveau, ré/actionnel, peut-être, ... auquel nous nous sommes confrontés, est celui de la thérapie par l'art. Peu s'en est fallu, cependant que nous ne négligions l'une de ces disciplines au profit de l'autre, tant la nécessité de prévaloir l'une plutôt que l'autre, à certains moments nous est apparue péremptoire. Nous dissimulons, ici, l'impact de ce moment et de cette nécessité, afin de maintenir en haleine, si possible, et ce, jusqu'à la fin de cette lecture tout/e lecteur/rice éventuel/le. Y parviendrons-nous? C'est le voeu que nous formulons, en première instance ...
Pollock McKenna, Annie 1998
An Art Therapy Assessment Instrument to Gauge Attachment during Pregnancy
This paper begins by surveying literature on art therapy, attachment theory and the psychological aspects of pregnancy. It then discusses how art products can be contextualized within attachment theory to provide a method of exploring the psychological constructs activated during pregnancy. It is proposed that data gathered from art therapy procedures and data gathered via attachment theory procedures, enjoy sufficient complimentarity, and relate to pregnancy significantly enough, to provide a productive union for research and clinical work. Six pregnant women participated in this pilot study. Each completed a demographic questionnaire, the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), a Bird's Nest Drawing (BND), and a Mother and Child Drawing (MCD). Preliminary results confirmed some concordance and good complimentarity between the two data sets. The RQ provides data which are reliable and informative to the clinician in identifying risk. The drawing data identify risk to a moderate degree. The drawing data, however, add to assessment data information which the client and clinician can use together to begin exploration of the client's attachment styles. The art data then, confirm risk and pave the way for intervention. The paper continues by discussing adjunct aspects of the art which have potential in identifying other psychological phenomenon which is beneficial for intervention. This paper concludes by discussing the need for, and possible direction of, further study.
Powers, Jade 2006
A Behavioral Approach to Developmental Art Therapy. A case study of utilizing this approach with a young boy with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorder, a condition once thought to be rare, currently affects millions of people world wide. A “cure” for this illness currently does not exist, therefore making approaches to treatment and rehabilitation the most important considerations for families after diagnosis. This holistic narrative case study investigates and discusses the use of a behavioral approach to developmental art therapy as a therapeutic approach for a young child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current literature review investigates the causes, effects and the contemporary approaches available for treatment for children with autism, including the use of Applied Behavioural Analysis (ABA). The case study looks to describe and explore the melding of a behavioural approach, particularly the techniques and principles of ABA, with the use of developmental art therapy practice, as an approach to treatment for a child with autism. In this, it describes the work and therapy that transpired over a year and a half period with a twelve year old boy with autism utilizing this approach to therapy. The works of art created during the art therapy sessions are displayed and discussed as a way to illustrate the growth and development that occurred over the course of the therapy. The future potentiality of this approach for children with autism and its implications for art therapy practice are also investigated.
Proulx, Johanne 1996
Le développement du "soi" chez un enfant autiste
Ce mémoire, présente, un survol de l'historique, des recherches sur l'autisme infantile et explore différentes théories sur la symbolisation dans le but de comprendre la construction du soi, d'un enfant autiste reçu dans un contexte d'art-thérapie. Selon la définition générale, l'autisme serait un repli sur soi.
Pour rendre compte de ce repli, il y a, selon les auteurs étudiés, deux tendances de pensée: l'une réactionnelle ou psychogénétique estime que l'origine de, ce syndrome provient d'évènements traumatiques ou d'un milieu pathogène; l'autre, organiciste, explique cet état par une déformation biologique. Une partie de cette étude montre donc l'apport de chacune, de ces orientations. Ensuite, l'exploration de différentes théories sur la symbolisation nous montrent les aspects normaux et pathologiques des premières relations d'objet et ses conséquences sur le développement de la pensée et de la construction d'un "self".
L'étude de cas illustre le traitement d'un petit garçon autiste fréquentant l'école de, jour d'un grand hôpital de Montréal. Albert est âgé de six ans et est vu dans un contexte, d'art-thérapie. Cet enfant a été reçu pendant une quarantaine de séances à raison d'une fois par semaine. Une sélection de dix-huit dessins permet de suivre le cheminement d'Albert à travers ses thèmes favoris qui sont au début: la piscine, les ballons, le, casque, de bain, les tuyaux et finalement le chat-père et le poisson-mère. La théorie de, Frances Tustin vient éclairer cette étude de cas. Tout au long de ce parcours thérapeutique, l'enfant se dirige vers une intégration progressive des parties de son Moi. Il se crée des brèches dans la barrière autistique d'Albert qui laisse, le passage à une phase symbiotique. Nous assistons donc, a "l'éclosion du soi" et aux premières manifestations de la pensée donnant ainsi accès au symbolisme.
Proulx-Jodoin, Lucille 1993
The Concept of Self, Reflected in the Art of Twins
The aim of this paper is to explore identity formation (self-concept) as expressed in the artwork of twin-born children. It was inspired by the work of the late Margaret Naumburg who introduced dynamically oriented art therapy theory as a means of discovering the self in imagery as a reflection of the unconscious and of the many aspects of the personality.
The self-concept expressed in the artwork of twin-born children was investigated. Twelve, latency-age children were assigned to two groups: the experimental group consisted of 6 dizygotic twins; the control group consisted of 6 monozygotic twins. All the subjects were asked to draw in a non-directed art assessment. The experimental data indicated that no evidence was found, in this study, of hereditary tendencies in the development of self. However, inferences were made from the drawings that circumstances imposed by the environment may be instrumental in self-concept development. Further directions for self-concept research was identified in the artwork and elaborated.
Przibislawsky, Csilla 1998
Common elements between Neutral Mask and Authentic Movement
This paper serves essentially to illuminate the relationship between neutral mask (currently a theatre model), and authentic movement (a form of dance/movement therapy as well as a method used for training performing artists). After a description and literature review of both neutral mask and authentic movement, a discussion follows identifying potential healing elements of neutral mask as it exists today in a theatrical context. Through a comparison of neutral mask with authentic movement, the writer suggests ways of adapting neutral mask techniques for the purpose of therapeutic benefits potentially achieved through the discipline. This paper also draws parallels between neutral mask and masks used for healing in existing drama therapy theories and practices. The discussion and analysis in this paper culminates in a hypothesis that neutral mask can serve as a viable form of movement and drama therapies.
Przibislawsky, Csilla 2000
Authentic Neutral Mask: A New Method of Drama Therapy
This research paper follows the heuristic study and development of a new Drama Therapy method entitled Authentic Neutral Mask. The researcher offers her own experiences with the method, as well as those of participants in a research group, as means for discovering meanings and essences that emerge from a synthesis of Movement technique 'Authentic Movement' and theatre technique 'Neutral Mask'. As part of this study, the researcher includes a thorough definition of the two separate methods and important components of the synthesized method. Adaptations to Neutral Mask technique needed for the purposes of therapy are also given, as well as the researcher's history with the two techniques and her reasons for synthesizing the two techniques into one method of Drama Therapy. The culmination of this paper is the formulation of a theoretical model grounded in existing theories in Psychology and Drama Therapy, and at the same time emerging wholly from the experiences of individuals engaged in Authentic Neutral Mask.
Ranger, Diane 1995
Possibilities of Computer in Art Therapy with Multi-Handicapped People
A few years ago, it would have been inconceivable to use computers as therapeutic tools in Art Therapy. The recent explosive developments in fields related to computers have resulted in the emergence of highly compact, convivial and adapted systems. These systems have allowed, among others, multi-handicapped people to make art works without being limited by their handicaps, without using conventional art media. Researches, such as Francine Béland's (Béland, 1994) from "Université du Québec à Hull", have demonstrated that it is quite possible to transfer and express feelings through computer art works.
The main starting objective of this study was to conduct art therapy sessions with multi-handicapped people using a computer. To do so, one must first inventory the various systems: computers, software and peripherals adapted to a multi -handicapped population. Then, there was the task to try to acquire an adequate system for the potential population of Maimonides hospital, where I was conducting my practicum. The hospital provided me with a system and a room which were not adequate to conduct art therapy sessions. Right from my first experiences with my two clients, I realized all the importance associated with the physical setting, the furniture, the adapted materials and the institutional support in the successful realization of the therapy. Therefore, this study describes the reasons for which I could not conduct case studies at this stage of my research. I wish to continue this research by conducting case studies with multi -handicapped people but, in light of my experience, this continuation will be conditional to the access to the adequate materials and environment necessary to the success of such an enterprise.
Ranger, Diane 1995
Les possibilités de l'ordinateur en art thérapie avec des personnes multi-handicapées
Il y a seulement quelques années il aurait été inconcevable d'utiliser l'ordinateur comme outil thérapeutique en art thérapie. Les développements explosifs récents des technologies informatiques ont permis l'émergence de systèmes compacts très puissants, très conviviaux et adaptés. Ces systèmes permettent entre autres aux personnes multi-handicapées de faire des travaux artistiques sans être limitées par leurs handicaps, sans utiliser les média artistiques conventionnels. Des travaux, tels que ceux de Francine Béland (Béland, 1994) de I'Université du Québec à Hull, ont montré qu'il est possible de faire passer des émotions à travers des travaux artistiques réalisés sur ordinateurs.
L'objectif de départ de cette étude était de faire de l'art thérapie avec des personnes multi-handicapées en utilisant l'ordinateur. Pour ce faire, il fallait tout d'abord inventorier les différents systèmes: ordinateurs, logiciels et périphériques adaptés à une clientèle multi-handicapée. Puis, il fallait essayer d'acquérir un système adéquat pour la clientèle potentielle de l'hôpital Maimonides, lieu où j'effectuais mes stages.
L'hôpital m'a fourni un système et une salle qui n'étaient pas adéquats pour mener des sessions d'art thérapie. Dès mes premières tentatives avec deux clients, j'ai pu me rendre compte de l'importance du lieu physique, du mobilier, des matériaux adaptés et du support institutionnel sur la faisabilité de la thérapie. Cette étude décrit donc les raisons pour lesquelles je n'ai pas pu faire d'études de cas à cette étape-ci de ma recherche. J'aimerais continuer cette recherche en faisant des études de cas avec une clientèle multi-handicapée, mais à la lumière de mon expérience, cette continuité sera conditionnelle à l'accès aux matériaux et à l'environnement indispensables au succès d'une telle entreprise.
Art Therapy, a Computer, and Two Exceptional Children
This research explores the use of computers as artistic tools and extensions of the body in Art Therapy with multi-handicapped children. The objective is to develop the foundation for a methodology using adapted computers in Art Therapy. Two case studies, with an eleven and twelve year old paraplegic girls, conducted over a period of fourteen weeks, are used to document this research.
To be in, a basic literature review presents the physical and psychological characteristics of cerebral palsy, which constitute risk factors in the development of psychological problems specific to the handicapped child. Then, a presentation of the physical environment and the materials available to me for the conduct of the case studies is followed by a description of each client's background and of the details of each session. These sessions are analysed based on drawings produced. Finally, I elaborate on the possibilities and limitations of the new technologies relatively to their use in Art Therapy.
This research shows that computers can be effective tools and extensions of the body in Art Therapy. The art therapist can read from drawings made from computers emotional transfers related to the child's problems.
Reisler, Vilma 1987
Reviewing Certain Issues in Brief Therapy in the Context of a Family Art Therapy Experience
A limited -theoretical review is presented of the development of brief psychotherapy family therapy and art therapy in the therapeutic treatment of a family system. An attempt has been made to structure an assessment -model developed over six separate sessions with the contention that during this assessment process, limited goals are able to be achieved.
Observation of the family interaction during the assigned tasks suggested that all the members reacted spontaneously. It is hoped that this paper might clarify the possibility of integrating a model of brief therapy with a time-limited, six session art therapy assessment of a family unit, i.e. a therapeutic experience with the achievement of limited goals, as has already been demonstrated and recorded in the literature of art therapy.
Rigg, Janet 2004
An Artist Meets a Therapist: Conflict and Convergence in the Identity of the Emerging Art Therapist
I was an artist at first, who happened to be studying psychology. Later, I would discover the profession of art therapy. It seemed perfect. However, my experience during the graduate training program at Concordia University taught me that this hybrid identity was not the marriage in heaven that I had assumed it would be. There were certainly points of convergence, but there were also deep conflicts. This text is a heuristic inquiry into my experience of my artist self becoming acquainted with my new, emerging therapist self. It is also art-based research, as I focus on the artwork that I created during the two year program. The text explores the needs and motivations of each identity as they were reflected in my artwork. It is my contention that my product always reflected my process, and that my sense of satisfaction regarding the product indicated the level of understanding I had reached. Furthermore, I found that the aesthetic elements necessary for a satisfying work of art -- balance, possibility, and belief -- were also necessary for therapeutic success. As a result, I argue that there should be a greater focus on the art product in art therapy and art therapy training programs. Art Therapists should be encouraged to use their special skills in understanding the art product in order to further the goals of therapy.
Rinfret, Louise 1999
L'imaginaire et la réalité des jeunes de la rue à travers la thérapie par l'art dramatique
This research paper, entitled "L'imaginaire et la réalité des jeunes de la rue à travers la thérapie par l'art dramatique", comprises a historical-theoretical analysis supporting a construction research. The research involved 34 young co-researchers (as well as 17 other participants of whom 16 could not be found to sign the consent form and one who chose not to sign it) in 40 workshops based on naturalistic-ethnographic and narrative approaches. In some cases, their companion-animals also attended. During workshops participants chose various creative tools including mime, improvisation/role-play, dance/movement, mental imagery, face painting, poetry and collage. Their involvement, along with our field observations, suggests a positive answer to the principal research question: Is drama therapy, along with mental imagery and animal-assisted therapies, adaptable in an efficient way to the needs of youth on the street? The answer to most of the subsidiary questions is also positive. These addressed: the relevance of these therapeutic approaches for facilitating understanding of the outlook and attitudes of youth on the street; the communicating of past traumatic events; the emergence of suppressed or repressed emotions; as well as depressed or suicidal ideation; and their potential for, it the case arose, defusing violent impulses. A decrease of violent impulses was not observed. This may have been due to infrequent workshop attendance of young people with this type of difficulty. As co-researchers, young people on the street explored alternative paths to institutional violence and running away shared their vision of society, their daily problems and their quest for happiness. Photographs of a collage face paintings and young people with their animal companions appear at the end of the paper.
Rinfret, Louise 1999
Diagnostic des éclats de la psyché par le jeu et l'imagerie
Ce travail de recherche historique/théorique de construction, intitulé “Diagnostic des éclats de la psyché par le jeu et l'imagerie”, constitue le premier volet d'une recherche de construction expérimentale qui aura pour cible d'évaluer des symptômes sur un continuum de troubles dissociatifs, chez des adolescents hébergés en centre sécuritaire. Le but principal de ce premier volet était de vérifier si la littérature scientifique offre des outils, utilisant l'art dramatique et l'imagerie mentale pour diagnostiquer le trouble dissociatif d'identité. Aucun chercheur spécialisé en thérapie par l'art dramatique ne semble avoir publié d'article sut le trouble dissociatif d'identité. En outre, plusieurs chercheurs spécialisés en art dramatique proposent des outils diagnostiques ou de traitement tout à fait adaptables au trouble dissociatif d'identité. La situation similaire de l'imagerie mentale est aussi analysée dans cette recherche. En complément, des opinions scientifiques sut la mise en salle d'isolement institutionnelle, en corrélation avec un retrait possible de la réalité, et des approches alternatives de chercheurs ciblant l;a résistance des adolescents ont été sondées. Une ébauche de programme thérapeutique, basé sur l'art dramatique et l'imagerie mentale, comme outil de diagnostics pour des symptômes sur un continuum des troubles dissociatifs est présentée, en fin de travail.
Rinfret, Louise 2000
L'imaginaire et la réalité des jeunes de la rue à travers la thérapie par l'art dramatique
This research paper, entitled "L'imaginaire et la réalité des jeunes de la rue à travers la thérapie par l'art dramatique", comprises a historical/theoretical analysis supporting a construction research. The research involved 34 young co-researchers (as well as 17 other participants of whom 16 could not be found to sign the consent form and one who chose not to sign it) in 40 workshops based on naturalistic-ethnographic and narrative approaches. In some cases, their companion-animals also attended. During workshops participants chose various creative tools including mime, improvisation/role-play, dance/movement, mental imagery, face painting, poetry and collage. Their involvement, along with our field observations, suggest a positive answer to the principal research question: Is drama therapy, along with mental imagery and animal-assisted therapies, adaptable in an efficient way to the needs of youth on the street? The answer to most of the subsidiary questions is also positive. These addressed: the relevance of these therapeutic approaches for facilitating understanding of the outlook and attitudes of youth on the street; the communicating of past traumatic events; the emergence of suppressed or repressed emotions; as well as depressed or suicidal ideation; and their potential for, if the case arose, defusing violent impulses. A decrease of violent impulses was not observed. This may have been due to infrequent workshop attendance of young people with this type of difficulty. As co-researchers, young people on the street explored alternative paths to institutional violence and running away shared their vision of society, their daily problems and their quest for happiness. Photographs of a collage face paintings and young people with their animal companions appear at the end of the paper.
Robertson, Beth 2006
The Story Within: A young girl lets go of her burden with the help of a hobbit
This paper examines whether Yehudit Silverman's therapeutic approach The Story Within: myth and fairy tale in therapy, can be beneficial in the treatment of clients with anorexia. Through a case study design, this paper demonstrates how this approach was useful with one anorexic client in working through difficult personal material, through the use of fiction and metaphor. It also demonstrates that Silverman's therapeutic approach allows therapeutic goals to be met, including the instillation of a sense of autonomy, a sense of self, and self-acceptance, as well as aiding the anorexic client in emotional expression. In addition, this paper demonstrates how Silverman's approach aids in overcoming an anorexic client's resistance to therapy, the therapeutic alliance, and the confrontation of personal material. The study design consists of a case study, a narrative account chronicling the use of Silverman's therapeutic approach with an anorexic client over a period of seven months, as well as an analysis of how The Story Within: myth and fairy tale in therapy, is useful in working with anorexic clients.
Robillard, Julie 2005
Abrege du travail de recherche intitule: Le corps en dramatherapie: Les notions post-modernes d'identite, de corps et d'emotions de deux auteurs en dramatherapie et la condition post-moderne du corps
Ce travail de recherche a pour but de faire un survol de la notion du corps en dramatherapie en lien avec la notion du corps post-moderne. Pur ce faire, Les notions du corps chez deux auteurs en dramatherapie seront, soit celles de Phil Jones et de David Read Johnson. Ces notions seront regardees a travers les theories post-modernes et leur perception du corps. Le travail de recherche est divise en trois grands chapitres, soit le corps en therapie et en dramatherapie, puis la notion du corps dans le travail de Phil Jones et finalement celle de David Read Johnson. Ce travail permettra de conclure si la notion du corps en dramaterapie est complementaire ou non a celle des theories post-modernes. Cela pour arriver a comprendre l'implication du corps dans la pratique et les theories en dramatherapie dans le contexte post-moderne.
Robinson, Catherine Anne 1992
The supervisory experiences of art therapy students: An exploration
This thesis explores art therapy supervision in graduate training programs in North America which are approved by the American Art Therapy Association, by way of a literature review and a mail survey of students receiving individual faculty or faculty-assigned supervision in those programs. It focuses on an otherwise minimally explored facet of art therapy training that plays a critical role in shaping the professional identity and competence of the practising art therapist.
In addition to attaining a snapshot of how art therapy supervision is conducted through the mail survey, this thesis explores how supervision can best facilitate therapeutic understanding and competence of the student art therapist. The nature of the supervisory relationship is examined through the literature on the developmental approach to supervision, as well as through Winnicott's theories of "Potential space". Both bodies of literature hold that effective and meaningful learning takes place in the context of a relationship. Further discussions in the thesis focus on the application of these ideas to art therapy supervision.
The thesis also investigates the feasibility and possible benefits of employing art-making practices during art therapy supervision and training, as the survey results indicate that art-making practices do not figure prominently in the education of the art therapist.
Rodrigues, Jennifer 1992
Images of HIV Seropositivity: A Research Proposal
This thesis is an elaboration of a research proposal on the images of HIV seropositivity. Research on AIDS/ HIV seropositivity has so far been limited to the experience of men, initially those most affected by this illness, yet women are increasingly being directly affected by this disease which has unique implications for women in terms of reproduction, sexuality, and the body. Based upon an analysis of the images of AIDS/ HIV seropositivity, psychological research, the clinical use of the image and the unique implications of this illness for women, this study establishes a research proposal wherein art therapy provides the framework for understanding the experience of women living with HIV seropositivity. In particular, it focuses upon the image as a means of illustrating the experienced reality of the individual and art therapy as a privileged method of' investigation into this reality. The proposal is aimed at gaining insights that would provide a basis for psychotherapeutic intervention and thereby contribute to knowledge of the psychological impact of this illness.
Rosales, Allan Brent 2005
Drawing Assessments with Adults with Developmental Delays: Research and Development
Using historical-documentary method the literature with respect to art-based research and psychological assessments with developmentally delayed populations was investigated. Additional emphasis was made towards the dominant trends in the research and the approaches to demonstrate assessment reliability and validity. Consequent recommendations are made for developing and empirically informed drawing test for developmentally delayed adults.
Rosen, Judith 1984
Art as Therapy with Mentally Handicapped Adults (In a residential Setting)
A study conducted in 1968 (F. Menelscino) found a significantly high ratio of emotional disturbances among mentally handicapped children. Further investigations, into this area, have been scant. Although much has been written about teaching the mentally handicapped to accomplish new tasks, very little has been written about helping this population to deal with emotional disabilities which often result from being handicapped. In many cases, a diagnosis of an emotional disorder in a handicapped person will be ignored because most institutions are not able to deal with both issues.
Some work in Art Therapy and other therapies have shown positive results (Wilson 1980, Satir 1972) in the treatment of these emotional disorders. A mentally handicapped person will remain so, because of a physiological disability, but research shows ways in which the emotional disabilities can be understood and helped.
Through a literature review and clinical work, this paper proposes to discuss some of the possibilities available for this population.
Using Piaget's theory of developmental psychology coupled with Object Relations Theory and W. Winnicott's thoughts on creative living, steps leading to greater self-awareness and some cognitive growth development issues such as preservation are discussed from the same psychological outlook.
Finally, case studies of two mentally handicapped adults are presented. A summary follows the case work with specific reference to aforementioned theories.
Rozenberg, Mira 2006
An Approach to Literacy through Therapeutic Theatre: Construction of a Theatre Program for At-Risk Youth.
This program is constructed based on review into the current literature of at-risk youth, literacy, and the drama therapeutic model of therapeutic theatre. Literacy is fused with therapeutic theatre in an original therapy program for use in schools with at-risk youth. Students who have low academic achievement may act out with negative behaviours, perpetuating a cycle that may eventually lead to loss of interest in school, or dropping out. Alternative visions of literacy are promoted in this research project to meet the students' immediate needs and help advance their situation, so that they experience success and achievement in a therapeutic milieu. Therapeutic theatre is an effective modality for at-risk youth because of the expected personal and social benefits that derive from such a group drama therapy experience with a final aesthetic goal and public performance. Youth will become more confident and empowered in the process. Feelings of success will transfer to other areas of life, helping participants to ultimately develop a more positive outlook on the future.
Roy, Frédérique 1998
Between two worlds: The therapeutic uses of art appreciation
In writing this paper I attempt to find some answers to the question: what are the therapeutic uses of art appreciation?
Chapter I presents a historical overview of approaches to art appreciation in psychoanalysis, art education and the philosophy of art. It deals with how three main views of perception and art have impacted North American views of art appreciation. These three approaches are defined as free association, formal analysis, and empathy.
Chapter II offers examples of how images are being presently used in therapy. It focuses on how therapists, including a psychoanalyst, phototherapist and art therapist, have constructed their understanding of the image and psychology, and how this has influenced their practice of art appreciation in therapy.
Chapter III formulates a synthesis of the information gathered, and goes on to explore how images can be used in storytelling to give the viewer a starting point for self-understanding, social integration, and reclaiming a personal locus of control.
Roy, Frédérique 1999
Understanding group process and the creative act: How do children see their world, and how do their interactions with others and with art media impact on the child's mediation of inner and outer experiences?
In conducting my research I have been motivated by one main question: how does group process and the art process affect the child's ability to mediate between inner and outer experience? I begin by stating my basic assumptions and offer literature focusing on theories of human development and creativity to support my views. I then explore literature pertaining to theories concerning "self and other" that have led to contemporary perspectives on socialization, group psychotherapy and group art therapy.
I go on to explore different constructs for understanding group dynamics and therapeutic factors of group therapies, and focus on interactive group therapy, group art therapy, and group therapies with children.
For the practical portion of my research paper, I also present an art therapy group case study, in which I focus on the experiences and artwork of three latency age boys, aimed at illustrating how group -process and the creative process can facilitate effecting change and fluidity to one's relationship with self and other, seen as key to human development and mental health.
Finally I attempt to synthesize my finding, both theoretical and practical.
Roy, Lynne 1993
Voyage au travers le corps blessé: Le vide et le plein
Étude d'observation d'un atelier d'art thérapie offert à des femmes ayant des troubles alimentaires
Ce travail, propose de présenter des ateliers d'art thérapie offerts à trois groupes de femmes ayant des troubles alimentaires. En développement, nous exposons des théories de pensée psychanalytique pour tenter d'expliquer la croissance perturbée de la perception de soi et de l'image corporelle, illustrée par les oeuvres des participantes aux ateliers. L'environnement social en tant qu'agent manipulateur de l'image du corps féminin, joue un rôle déterminant dans le maintien de cette perturbation.
Nous tenterons de démontrer l'intérêt que peut apporter l'utilisation de l'art thérapie auprès de ces femmes. La troisième partie du travail, est consacrée à une analyse des productions visuelles, effectuées lors des ateliers, qui ont trait à la symbolique du VIDE et du PLEIN. Nous verrons que ce thème récurant, qui se réfère au réceptacle et à l'enveloppe qu'il comporte, illustre peut-être une transformation intérieure propre aux femmes de notre société. Le malaise corporel des femmes ayant des compulsions alimentaires, pouvant être la traduction physique de ce que la psyché ne peut exprimer.
Sajnani, Nisha 2002
The Embodied Mandala Method as an Assessment Tool in Drama Therapy
The Embodied Mandala method evolved out of the Mandala method proposed by Dr. Sue Jennings as a viable structure to explore the self. This research is an exploration of the connection between embodiment, projection and role to the mandala structure and is intended as an integrated mind/body approach to understanding the self. The proposed methodology has been explored with adolescents seen individually and in a group format. Applications of this method for assessment within drama therapy as well as cross-cultural adaptability are discussed.
Saltzman, Mona 1990
Art in the Context of Family Therapy and Childhood Psychopathology
A brief retrospective of the history of family therapy with emphasis on systems theory, the systems model and family art therapy retraces its origins and development.
This thesis examines the role and the function of art in family art therapy when children present with psychopathology.
In the actual process of creating something in the presence of family members' communication occurs and inner feelings are expressed. How these creations act as facilitators towards the goals of family therapy is a focus of analysis.
Sandilands, Erin 2004
A role for Creative Arts Therapies in Treating ADHD
Explore ADHD treatment as a site of interaction between creative arts and mainstream therapies. The clinical considerations in treating children diagnosed ADHD are described, and the role for creative arts therapies is examined through the work of creative arts therapists who include this population in their practice. ADHD is increasingly defined as a biological disorder; this paper explores the history of arts-based treatments in biological disorders. Using the analysis of Thomas Kuhn, the nature of the creative arts therapies as an emerging field is considered, and the relationship between evidence-based and arts-based treatments are investigated.
Schwartz, Cynthia L. 1994
"Art Therapy - Opening Doors”: Master's Thesis Video and Organizational Manual
Art Therapy is a rapidly developing alternative to the traditional verbal therapies. It places much of its emphasis on the act of creative problem solving through the production of art work, within a therapeutic environment. The video, "Art Therapy - Opening Doors," is an attempt to synthesize many of the current trends, theory, approaches and ideology that make up the practice of Art Therapy. The information for this video was abstracted from a series of interviews with professional art therapists across Canada and the United States.
The sixteen minute video was edited with the potential employer in mind. The video was created in part, to serve as a resumé supplement for art therapists seeking employment. The video in this way, would introduce the concepts of art therapy, enabling the therapist to focus on why she/he might be the right art therapist for the position.
The manual entitled "Art Therapy - Opening Doors"; Master's Thesis Video Organizational Manual, is a written synthesis of the video. It includes the objectives for the video, the budget, proposals for financial assistance, the video content, notes on the filming, the interview techniques, editing and some helpful hints about the production of a thesis video.
Scott, E. Stephen 1997
The Effects of Body Imaging on the Graphic Expression of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in a Group Art Therapy Program
This thesis explores the effects of a structured focus on body imagery on the expressive graphic representations of mentally challenged adults in a group art therapy program. This program utilizes preliminary activities in two-part sessions in which the clients are oriented to a focus on movement and visual thinking through a thematic concentration on aspects of bodily self-representation. These activities include mirroring, relaxation and imaging, role-play, and graphic representation of physical sensation and emotion. The study provides evidence that these explorations enhance, through primarily non-verbal art processes, clients' symbolic self-representations. This is shown by decreases in rigidity, and shifts toward improvements in receptive/expressive cognitive functioning in the works done in the second part of the sessions. It is believed that flexibility in imagery productions facilitate variation in the expression of personal and motional thematic material, The study incorporates Neo-Piagetian understandings of developmental processes in children's graphic expression as well as principles of therapeutic approach which utilize prelinguistic cognitive organization. The findings provide evidence of the efficacy of "process" models of art therapy in serving the needs of adaptivity and growth in low-functioning clients.
Scott, E. Stephen 1998
Emotional and Behavioral Response in Latency: Self-image Drawings as Projective Measures of Self-construct in Children with Conduct Disorder in Art Therapy
This exploratory case study uses self-image drawings to examine the phenomenology of self-representation in children who have been referred to a child psychiatry clinic for conduct problems. The children were asked to "draw themselves" in a standardized 4 1/2 X 5 1/2" rectangle. Observation of the results included incorporation of established projective criteria for Human Figure Drawings (HFD's), and response to the constraint of the container for the drawing. These drawings were elicited over a period of 6 to 8 months during which the children were involved in Art Therapy and treatment at the clinic. Emotional responses and adaptive strategies were examined in the drawings in relation to the broad-band personality profiles of internalization-externalization. A study of the self-image drawings of two 8 year old boys who share many of the same referring problems showed differences in emotional and schematic content in the manner by which they represented themselves, and were seen to correspond to traits characteristic of their profiles. Depressive or negative mood was seen to be concurrent to internalization, and was reflected in the developmental level and self-limiting emotional indicators in body-image and response to the container. Externalization was seen to be expressed as concern for interaction, more fluid and developed drawings, and more positive associations. Changes in self-image were considered to correspond to the development of more positively integrated self-feelings.
Scott, Ron 2003
A Mixed-Methods Study Examining the Effectiveness of an Integrated Creative Arts Therapies Intervention on a Group of Depressed Adolescent Females
Depression is a serious mental disorder affecting a large percentage of female adolescents in contemporary society, which, due to a combination of psychiatric, environmental, social, and developmental factors, presents a remarkable challenge to the mental health professional. This paper evaluated the effectiveness of a group-based, combined art and drama therapy approach in treating three depressed adolescents. The study adopted a mixed methods approach, combining a quantitative and qualitative research methodology. A quantitative portion in the form of a quasi-experimental, pre-post research design was utilized in order to objectively demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention with respect to the participants' levels of depression, anxiety, suicidality, self-esteem, conduct disorder, and global level of functioning. The qualitative portion provided some greater detail into the quantitative findings by means of descriptive case studies. Results of most quantitative measures were inconclusive, although all participants experienced an increase in self-esteem. However, the qualitative evidence presented some rationale for the inconclusive evidence, and demonstrated some additional improvements in levels of depression, self-awareness, and emotional expression. Due to the significant limitations of the study, it was concluded that the study holds validity as a pilot study, but that further research is necessary to empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of this intervention.
Séguin, Véronique 2007
Exploration du processus de séparation-individuation : une étude de cas examinant la relation mère-enfant en art-thérapie
La relation mère-enfant et principalement les questions relatives à l'attachement et à l'individuation ont fait l'objet de nombreuses recherches. S'il est impératif de connaître les effets de cette relation sur le développement de l'enfant, il n'est pas moins essentiel d'accroître et de perfectionner les méthodes d'intervention permettant de réduire les perturbations symbiotiques. La présente recherche entend démontrer l'hypothèse selon laquelle l'art-thérapie, grâce à ses qualités expressive, créative et communicative, s'avère un mode de traitement particulièrement efficace à ce stade relationnel primaire. Ce travail de recherche repose principalement sur l'apport théorétique et clinique des théoriciens de l'attachement, notamment Malher, Bowlby et Ainsworth, ainsi que sur le complexe de la « mère morte » défini par le psychanalyste André Green. Le développement psychique et socio-affectif de l'enfant, le processus de séparation-individuation, ainsi que les modèles d'intervention conçus pour traiter les conflits émanant du noyau primaire font l'objet d'une étude détaillée. L'ensemble de la recherche est soutenu par une étude de cas descriptive (single case design) reposant sur une méthodologie qualitative, et vise à démontrer l'efficacité d'un traitement art-thérapeutique de courte durée dans la réduction de l'anxiété de séparation et le renforcement de l'individuation d'une dyade mère-enfant.
Sequeira, Cristal 1996
Healing Through Art: An Exploration of the Efficacy of Art Therapy with Children with Cancer
This paper is an exploration of the efficacy of art therapy interventions with children with cancer. Some of the issues to be addressed are: the history and causes of cancer; the physical and psychological effects of cancer on children; the various treatments available; the current literature on using art therapy with this population; and the factors which contribute to the efficacy of art therapy. The research indicates that art therapy is mainly used to help children cope with their illness; however, together with visualisation strategies, drawings are also used to facilitate the physical healing process. Due to the exploratory nature of this paper, conclusions are formulated in terms of further work to be accomplished in order to better understand the role of art therapy in helping children with cancer.
Sequeira, Cristal 1997
The Pregnant Art Therapist: The Mother-to-be and the Child Client
This paper discusses the impact of the therapist's pregnancy on the therapist, client, and therapeutic work. Each of the three phases of pregnancy is accompanied by several emotional and physical changes. For the therapist these are experienced together with shifts in identity and new demands on her repertoire of therapeutic techniques. The child client may experience fear of abandonment, sibling rivalry, concerns about nascent sexuality, and other counter transference issues. A literature review is presented first, before the interplay between client and therapist is discussed using clinical case illustrations of four children in art therapy. In the particular case of short term art therapy with children with behavioural problems, the therapist's pregnancy facilitated the therapeutic process and led to emotional growth in the child client and the therapist.
Shalmon, Maya. 2007
Self-mutilation, pathology, and performance: Implications for art therapy
This research addresses the phenomenon of self mutilation, as practiced by adolescents and adults living in contemporary Western society, as found in the imagery of clients in art therapy, and as performed by artists as part of their body of work. Literature on self-mutilation in the fields of psychiatry, psychology, and art therapy is compared to and contrasted with art historical literature on a selection of contemporary performance artists using self-mutilation in their work. The principle aim of this research is to examine the motivations and functions of self-mutilation performed in the contexts of pathology and of performance of art. The subsidiary aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between the actor and the viewer, be it the performance artist and the audience, of the client and the therapist. This study uses a theoretical methodology in order to view divergent discourses on acts of self-mutilation performed within different contexts, in the hopes of finding interrelationships between them, thereby contributing to a new perspective on the subject relevant to the field of art therapy. Treatment implications for art therapists explored in this study include the way in which the art making process may aid in overcoming the obstacle of therapist counter-transference towards self-mutilating clients, and facilitate the resolution of unconsciously driven acting out behavior. The relationship between self-mutilation and ritual informs a discussion on the parallels between ritual space, contained within established cultural boundaries, and transitional space, contained within the art therapeutic frame, and how both offer conditions favorable for transformation.
Shamy, Tania 1984
The Mandala: Survey of Its Cyclical Evolution in Children's Drawings and Human History
The cyclical evolution of the mandala configuration in children's drawings and human history is the subject of this thesis. The fact that it is a system of organization is seen in the emergence of the mandala configuration in children's drawings as they proceed to pictorial representation. The mandala is also discussed in reference to Jung's research
collective unconscious. Its function as a system of organization is revealed through examples of architecture, art and the science of alchemy. Its originating form is found to reach back to the Archetypal Image of the Uroboros, or the beginning, the structure of which is found in nature. As a symbol within a culture it is described as an integral part of the mythology of the Navaho Indians of the Western United States. The thesis concludes with a discussion of the importance of the mandala in the art of the early part of the 20th century as a reflection of the instability of mankind as a result of the revolutionary changes made by scientific research and artists' attempts to encompass it on a spiritual level. Education through art can be seen as a basis for a universal language that carries a potential for the unity of mankind.
Shapiro, Beverly 1998
Art Therapy and Rehabilitation - A Holistic Approach: The Role of Art Therapy in the Holistic Medicine Model When Working with Physical Disability
Three art therapy cases of severely physically disabled adults in a convalescent and rehabilitation hospital are the basis for a study in conjunction with a review of literature pertaining to the holistic approach toward mind-body balance in healing physical and psychological disorders. The concept referred to is that of psychosomatic medicine because it also deals with "somatopsychic" medicine - an area that has not been widely acknowledged or researched - the focus of this study. A description of the impact of disability on the affective life of the patient is investigated. With this information and the presentation of the cases as clinical examples of the process of creative art expression and its effect, an evaluation of the results is given. Special reference is made to specific goals proposed in relation to fulfilling emotional needs and positively effecting rehabilitation, as may be inferred from the three illustrated cases. A brief summary of the art therapy process with regard to this population is then presented. Possible areas for future investigation conclude the thesis.
Sherwin, Nicola 1994
Cross-Cultural Healing: Art Therapy, Acculturation and the Canadian Native
Cross-cultural Art Therapy is a new and burgeoning field. As yet, there is little to meet the specific problems faced by Canadian Native clients. This study attempts to address those challenges by defining Native realities and cultures so that the therapist can gain a more complete understanding of the field. The task of defining the cultural aspects of all nations and tribes would be immense. I have therefore focused on my direct involvement with Natives in the province of Quebec, in attempting to realistically observe differentials between Native and Western cultures, and in looking at Native spirituality through the eyes of a woman of European descent. Acculturation is a shadow of the constructs of culture. To walk in this Western-cast shadow is critical to understanding the reality of the culturally-displaced Native client. The effects of societal disintegration by the majority culture cause significant problems faced by its members who enter the arena wishing to repair the damage. Gaining trust is imperative to the effort of becoming a socially sanctioned healer. The most difficult problem faced by the professional working in this milieu is recognizing the level of acculturation faced by each individual client.
The main presenting problem by clients in this milieu is substance abuse, although the other major forms of abuse are apparent. It is my proposal in this work to combine Native healing with psychotherapy.
Shortliffe, Thomas 2004
The Relevance of Gender in the Profession and Practice of Art Therapy: A Male Perspective
The following research focuses on the relevance of gender in the profession and practice of art therapy. Women make up more than 80% of professionals in the field and this has prompted the question: "Why are so few men art therapists?" The issue of men's absence is investigated within a qualitative framework in part by asking: "What is the experience of a male art therapy intern like?"
A heuristic approach outlined by Douglass and Moustakes, (1985) began with an "internal search to know" the meaning of my experience as the only male in an otherwise all female group of 11 art therapy interns. A review of the literature demonstrates that the social construction of gender is an important consideration in diagnosis and treatment considerations as well as the in professional history and present of art therapy. A survey comprised of 6 questions was designed to sample the perceptions of 17 professional and interning art therapists regarding the relevance of gender in their professional and practical experiences. The question: "why are there so few men art therapists?" was examined. The constant comparative procedure (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) was used to make meaning of the data. Responses suggest that the socialization of gender is perceived to be an important factor involved in the absence of men from professional art therapy and that male and female respondents may perceive the relevance of gender in art therapy from distinct perspectives. Finally, 5 paintings were produced towards a creative synthesis of the data. The creative process and product in the final component of this study are discussed for their tacit, non-verbal rendering of the subject area towards a creative synthesis of the findings.
Singh, Abha 2001
Art Therapy and Children: A Case Study on Domestic Violence
This research paper investigates how art therapy is a creative process through which children who have experienced domestic violence can communicate their thoughts, emotions, and trauma. The research presents a practical look at violence and children and how art therapy can be utilized as a tool for such children. Some ethical concerns are presented and various assessment procedures that have been developed for children within the area of children and abuse are suggested. An attempt is made to understand the emotional content through indicators represented within children's art expressions. An emphasis is placed on the use of specific indicators portrayed in the images of children who have been exposed to violence followed by a discussion of the art therapy process and product and its importance when working with children who have been exposed to violence. The importance of play in therapy is presented as I found it beneficial to this population. Further, a case study of a child who has experienced domestic violence is incorporated within the research by way of illustration in support of the study.
Slipp, Micheala, C., 2006
Art Therapy in Venezuela: A developing field in the developing world
This qualitative research project is a preliminary investigation into some of the key mental health issues and the services currently available to children in Caracas, Venezuela. It attempts to identify potential links between mental health practice and issues in Venezuela and the field of creative arts therapies. This line of inquiry was addressed through semi-structured interviews with mental health professionals in Caracas from March through to July of 2005. The subsequent data analysis was informed by phenomenological theory as developed by J.A. Smith and Giorgi & Giorgi (2003). This manuscript summarizes some of the principle themes that emerged from interviews across the public, private and non-profit mental health service sectors. This includes summary of the main issues that present for treatment and some of the services currently available in Caracas. Treatment programs featuring creative arts treatment modalities and several socio-political factors affecting mental health are also highlighted.
Smith, Heidi Ann 1997
Art Therapy for Drug Dependent Adolescents
Adolescent drug dependent persons are one of the most challenging populations to treat. Understanding drug dependency and the developmental milestones which adolescents undergo is essential in providing effective treatment. This research paper is an unfolding literature review of adolescent drug dependency. Specifically, the question "Why is art therapy effective with drug dependent adolescents?" is the vantage point from which this research stems.
The first chapter focuses on the definition of drug dependency, adolescent development and why adolescents use drugs. Related pathologies that this population may have are also explored. To summarize, a vignette by Mildred Lachman-Chapin is personally analyzed and evinces a clinical explanation of dependency. This case is chosen from a book entitled Approaches To Art Therapy which is edited by Judith Rubin.
Encompassed within the next section are connections between drugs and art. A tripartite paradigm; unconsciousness, relaxation and symbol formation occurs collectively in both, thus suggesting that art therapy is a polyvalent treatment tool for drug dependent adolescents.
Within the third chapter, current research focusing on treatment milieus is investigated. Most importantly, individual art therapy will be highlighted and promoted as a main focus in an effective treatment environment.
Smith, Heidi Ann 1998
Psychodynamics of Fairy Tales in Art Therapy: A Case Study Investigation
The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the use of fairy tales in art therapy with children. My primary research question is: How can fairy tales be useful in art therapy when working with children? The importance, significance and usefulness of a fairy tale will be highlighted in a case analysis which is included in this paper.
Other issues addressed are: What are some analytical interpretations of fairy tales in regard to children? Why do children enjoy fairy tales? How are fairy tales implemented in children's therapy? When do children choose a favorite fairy tale? How does art therapy relate to fairy tales? How do fairy tales help in an art therapy setting with children? How does the analysis procedure unfold when using fairy tales in art therapy? How are fairy tales useful during sessions, and/or are they only helpful in later analysis conducted by the therapist alone?
The overall findings of this exploration suggest that fairy tales are psychologically significant to children, as exploring a child's favorite fairy tale may indeed bolster the working through process in art therapy. Through using the tale as a metaphor for life issues, children may be able to address overwhelming feelings which are difficult to verbalize. Therefore, a personal summary of the meaning of these findings indicates that fairy tales are a polyvalent tool in art therapy when working with children.
Sokil, Lisa Kazimea 1998
Living ritual: A Model of Drama Therapy for the Dying
A model of drama therapy is developed which uses concepts drawn from rites of passage and current drama therapy practice, to address the needs of a hospice population. Links are drawn between ritual, therapy and drama, with a focus on the liminal period of rites of passage, and its correspondences with the transformative and containing aspects of ritual drama therapy. Drama therapy and rites of passage are assessed in terms of how they address needs of the dying. The role of the therapist in such work is discussed. A model is formulated in four stages: the development of creative repertoire within a supportive group; the exploration of myths of transition; the reframing of lived ritual; and the creation of a personal rite of passage. Explicit attention is also paid in the model to the experience of ritual within the drama therapy context.
Sokil, Lisa Kazimea 1999
An Ethnography of Choice: Active Imagination in the Service of Self-Directed Change
This paper presents two techniques of active imagination, embodied psyche and Internal Family Systems Therapy, as they were used in a drama therapy context with people who had suffered non-death loss. The practical context of this work is described, and the Jungian framework from which it is derived is presented. Ethnographic research method and ethics were used in conducting this research, forming a bridge between the roles of therapist and researcher. The links between ethnography in self-initiated chance projects and therapy research are explored. Many verbatim transcripts from two case studies are used to illustrate embodied psyche and Internal Family Systems, and to discuss the application of these techniques in this context. The validity of the research is explored in terms of the ethnographic qualities of veracity, objectivity, and perspicacity. It is concluded that both active imagination techniques and the ethnographic approach to research are useful in creating structures and experiences supportive of personal responsibility and self-directed change.
Sokoloff, Mélissa 2008
Art-thérapie Auprès d'Adultes Inuits en Psychiatrie : Comment Apprendre par l'Expérience de l'Art
Les adultes en crise psychiatrique au Nunavik sont d'abord évalués et stabilisés localement puis transférés à Montréal lorsque l'hospitalisation est nécessaire. En plus de leurs problèmes en santé mentale, ces patients peuvent vivre un choc culturel. Cette étude de cas explore comment l'art-thérapie peut aider des adultes Inuits durant leur hospitalisation à Montréal, en examinant leur processus selon I'un des principes culturels Inuits, l'apprentissage expérientiel. La définition de ce principe dans le contexte de l'art-thérapie et de la culture est suivie d'un relevé des sources d'apprentissage expérientiel dans la littérature sur la psychothérapie et l'art-thérapie auprès d'Inuits et d'Autochtones, puis de psychotiques.
Le codage du processus thérapeutique a été utilisé dans deux vignettes d'adultes Inuits hospitalisés pour épisode psychotique dans un contexte d'abus de drogue et d'alcool. Ils ont reçu trois et cinq séances individuelles d'art-thérapie. L'analyse du contenu de l'apprentissage a permis de dégager des pistes à explorer pour les patients ainsi que des processus en jeu, comme l'agir dans l'art et le développement d'une narration symbolique. L'étude a permis d'identifier des conditions influençant l'apprentissage expérientiel, telles que la ritualisation de l'espace thérapeutique, la variation sensorielle des matériaux, l'écologie de l'atelier et une approche non directive. Les résultats de la recherche ne sont pas généralisables étant donné le petit nombre de cas, mais ils fournissent des pistes d'intervention en art-thérapie dans un contexte de diversité culturelle et de thérapie brève en milieu hospitalier.
Sokoloff, Mélissa 2008
Art Therapy with Inuit Adults in Psychiatry: How to Learn through the Art Experience
Adults in psychiatric crisis are first evaluated and stabilized locally, then transferred to Montreal when hospitalization is necessary. In addition to their mental health problems, these patients may live a cultural shock. This case study explores how art therapy may help Inuit adults during their hospitalization in Montreal, through one of the Inuit cultural principles, experiential learning. The definition of this principle in the context of art therapy and culture is followed by a review of experiential learning sources in the literature on psychotherapy and art therapy with Inuits and Aboriginals, as well as with psychotics. Coding of process notes has been used in two vignettes of adult Inuits hospitalized for psychotic episodes in a drug and alcohol abuse context. They have received three and five individual art therapy sessions. The analysis of what was learnt has revealed avenues of exploration for patients, in addition to processes, such as action in the art-making and the development of a symbolic narrative. The study has permitted to identify conditions influencing the experiential learning, such as ritualization of the therapeutic space, sensorial variation of materials, the ecology of the studio and a non-directive approach. The findings cannot be generalized due to the small number of cases, but they provide avenues for art therapy interventions in the context of cultural diversity and brief therapy in the hospital milieu.
Sorge, Bernice 1997
An Exploration of Repetition as a Factor in Healing in Art Psychotherapy: Is Hope a Feature of this Healing?
Case Illustration: A Man with Bipolar Affective Disorder
Part one of this paper is a literature review and analysis of the principle of repetition in healing. This includes an overview of archaic healing practices, including the cosmogonic myth, healing practices in some indigenous cultures, as well as, an analysis of some healing techniques used in psychology. The literature shows that there is a history of healing practices from archaic beginnings to present day psychology that is based on the principle of repetition. Various theoretical perspectives are part of the discussion.
Part one concludes that the process of art therapy, as well as, the structure of the art therapy session are based on the principle of repetition. The art therapy session is compared to the cosmogonic myth as a healing device. The three main components of the art therapy session are analyzed: the art, the narrative, and the transference. Part two of this research paper illustrates some of the concepts of Part One using a case study. The art and the narrative of the case study are presented as concrete examples of the principles explored. More specifically, the principle of repetition, using the Navaho ceremony as a theoretical model, was concretized through discussions supported by the use of imagery and narrative.
St-Amand, Carole 1996
Active Imagination within an Art-Therapy Process
In this paper, we approach active imagination as a method. Rediscovered by Jung, validated by studies in alchemy which, during a period of disorientation, helped him reconnect with himself through play. From this, we examine the links between Winnicott's transitional space, active imagination and symbolism, while demystifying the relationship between them. By reviewing Jung's methodology according to the model of the psyche (concepts of anima, animus, shadow, persona, ego and self), the conjunction of opposites, the unconsciouses, both personal and collective (archetypes and myths), we further our understanding of Jung's typology. Thus broadening our view on what is active imagination, what are its goals and how it interacts with the psyche, this being mainly to bring about a transformation of the personality toward individuation. Then, after describing active imagination, we draw a parallel with art therapy so as to demonstrate how both these methods may enable us to explore the unconscious. In a way, this calls on the human being to discover and rebuild the self with the ultimate goal of becoming self- conscious. In time, a transformation of the personality occurs through the process of individuation. This paper ends with a proposal to apply active imagination as an auxiliary within an art therapy process, as needed by the patient during a particular session.
St-Amand, Carole 1996
L'imagination active dans un processus d'art-thérapie
Dans ce travail, nous aborderons la méthode de l'imagination active redécouverte par Jung, validée par ses études alchimiques et qui, dans une période de désorientation, l'aida à reprendre contact avec lui-même et ce, par le retour au jeu. En cela, nous étudierons les corrélations entre l'espace transitionnel de Winnicott et l'imagination active, ainsi que le symbolisme. Nous démystifierons aussi la relation entre ces deux phénomènes. En révisant la méthodologie de Jung selon le modèle de la psyché (concepts d'anima et d'animus, l'ombre, la persona, le Moi et le Soi), la conjonction des opposés, l'inconscient personnel et l'inconscient collectif (archétypes et mythes), nous arriverons à comprendre sa typologie pour mieux saisir comment l'imagination active établit un contact avec la psyché, en quoi consiste cette technique et quel en est son but. C'est-à-dire, la transformation de la personnalité vers le processus d'individuation. Après avoir présenté ce qu'est l'imagination active, nous établirons un parallèle avec l'art thérapie en vue de démontrer qu'elles sont toutes deux des méthodes d'exploration de l'inconscient en amenant l'être humain à se reconstruire et découvrir le Soi, ceci dans le but ultime de devenir conscient de soi-même. Et d'atteindre avec le temps, la transformation de la personnalité, le processus d'individuation. Nous terminerons ce travail, en proposant une nouvelle perspective d'avenir en art thérapie avec l'application de l'imagination active comme auxiliaire, selon les besoins immédiats du patient.
St-Amand, Carole 1999
Active Imagination within an Art-Therapy Process: A Case Study
This paper studies active imagination as discovered by Jung, deriving from alchemy, who, during a period of disorientation, began to reconnect with himself through a return to play. I will thus apply active imagination to a case study and will draw a parallel between fantasy, myth and the client. The aim of my paper is to broaden our view of active imagination, its goals and how it interacts with the psyche. This will enable us to gain a better understanding of the client, the process by which the active imagination enters into contact with the psyche, as well as its aims and advantages within art therapy. More specifically, I will address the process of individuation. As a precursor, 1 will make reference to the major ideas in my previous research paper. Then, I will demonstrate how active imagination and art therapy are both methods by which an exploration of the unconscious is made possible. Both techniques allow for self-discovery and reparation, but more importantly promote self-awareness. This study brings forth a new perspective to art therapy, through the application of active imagination as an auxiliary, depending on the immediate needs of the client.
Steinfort, Teresa 2005
Drama Therapy is a Valuable Asset in Career Aspiration Setting: A Multiple-Angle Investigation
The objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a drama therapy approach in career aspiration. The author used group comparison quantitative methods based on pre- and post-test data collected from two separate workshops. The control group (CG) received dialectical methods and the experimental group, the Drama Therapy group (DTG), experienced an action method. The overall statistical results appeared to favour the assumption that an action-oriented drama therapy approach in career aspiration was beneficial to workshop participants. Statistical findings also shed light on the value of a time-limited intensive creative process-oriented workshop.
Thematically, the author compared and contrasted the workshop evaluation between the CG and the DTG. Both groups requested to spending more time on each activity. The CG found the length of the workshop to be exhausting. On the contrary, the workshop process energized the DTG. Three months later, the author conducted an email follow-up. The responding rate was 20% from the CG vs. 70% from the DTG. Most DTG participants reported that they either took concrete steps in their career move or developed new perspective towards their career choices.
In addition, the author conducted two interviews to support the statistical results. Th first one was on the effectiveness of drama therapy in a career aspiration workshop. The other was about the therapeutic value of a time-limited creative process workshop. Taken together, findings in this study demonstrate that drama therapy is a valuable asset in career aspiration work. Likewise, results suggest that drama therapy can be a contribution to other psychoeducational settings.
Sweeney, Monica 2006
Playing to Strengths: A study examining drama therapy within the context of positive psychology
This study examines and compares two emerging areas in the field of mental health: positive psychology and drama therapy. The positive psychology movement emerged out of the desire to balance research in the mental health field to include the study of human strength and positive functioning along with the study of mental illness, and to apply this knowledge in clinical practice. The creative processes used in drama therapy, which are inspired by theatrical tradition, can effectively promote positive mental health, as they facilitate the potential for skill-building and deeper personal discovery within the safety of a therapeutic environment.
Supporters of positive psychology are also working towards building a strong body of research focusing on human strengths and potential. Research collaborations with positive psychologists could benefit drama therapy as a profession, by communicating this modality's therapeutic effectiveness to a wider community.
Sweetman, Suzanne 2000
A Soul Approach to Art Therapy Self-Inquiry
In this research paper I use my own process to assist in the discovery and evolution of a personal approach to art therapy, which I call a "Soul Approach to Art Therapy Self-Inquiry". The impetus for this project arose out of a painful initiation to the Master's program in art therapy, and what I perceived to be an incomprehensible gap between my personal experience of art therapy, which welcomed and affirmed one's soul yearnings, and the demanding program's seeming heedlessness of such needs due to pressures to meet academic and professional criteria. Discovery of the heuristic research method granted me the necessary creative freedom to track soul's movements in the way I desired. This approach, elaborated by Moustakas (1990) in his book Heuristic. Inquiry, recognizes personal experience and intuition as valid ways of knowing. Through research inquiry parallels emerged between the stages of heuristic research, creative process, and soul processes. The result is an extensive documentation of my soul process, as expressed through journal writing, intuitive readings, and personal artwork, out of which I was able to outline some essential features of a soul approach to art therapy self-inquiry. While the basic principles revealed through my heuristic process, such as the key dynamic of the transcendent function, have been articulated elsewhere, in particular in Jungian psychology, the strength of this research paper lie's in its unintentional, experiential demonstration of these dynamic processes creating an embodied theory. It has also provided me with a personalized blend of theoretical orientations and selected therapeutic modalities, which comprise a soul approach to art therapy self-inquiry.